Psychology Chapter 6
Terms in this set (12)
-The process by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
-cognitive development is based on the increasingly complex "mental programs" that people use to solve problems, similar to how a computer system works.
the process by which information is initially recorded in a form usable to memory.
Example: Can't find gloves
1. Encoding-Took gloves off inside
2. Storage-took coat and gloves off at the same time.
3. Retrieval-look for gloves by coat
the process by which information is saved for future use.
the process by which material in memory storage is located, brought into awareness, and used. We are able to recall information through the use of retrieval cues, stimuli that permit people to recall information.
the degree to which an activity requires attention. Processes that require relatively little attention are automatic; processes that require relatively large amounts of attention are controlled.
-Quicker processing of certain concepts allows for kids to focus on other mental problems.
-kids come to pair elements of information into concepts. They know that four legs, a tail, and barking is a dog. If the animal meows, it's a cat.
Three-System Approach (Atkinson and Shiffrin)
this theory says that there are several steps in the process that permit the encoding, storage, and retention of information, similar to a computer that passes information through a sequential series of steps. The three-system model consists of a sensory store, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
short term memory
It is in short-term memory that thoughtful, deliberate information processing first takes place, giving meaning to the raw, nonmeaningful information from the sensory store.
-Loss of information typically happening within 15 to 25 seconds.
-The capacity of short-term memory increases with age.
-can process information in chunks
the repetition of information that has entered short-term memory. As long as information in short-term memory is rehearsed, it is kept alive and is not lost. Rehearsal allows for the transfer of material into long-term memory.
-the memory component in which information is stored on a relatively permanent basis.
-is like cataloging information so it can be retrieved later, like a new library book.
-has a limitless capacity to store information.
-the reason we might have trouble remembering something in our long-term memory is because of a retrieval problem.
-Retrieval cues and memory modules help us remember things stored in Long-term memory.
stimuli that permit people to recall information. Retrieval cues are like a library's catalog; they guide people to the location of a specific memory. Retrieval cues may take the form of a word, an image, a smell, or a sound.
Information Processing Theory vs. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
-Information processing- development is quantitative and happens gradually and continuously.
-Piaget's theory- development is qualitative and cognitive development happens in stages.
information processing involving the ability to strategically choose among and sort out different stimuli in the environment. As children grown older, their ability to control their attention increases.