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expanded localized regions where there is increased gray matter to provide innervation of the limbs on the spinal cord
strand of fibrous tissue that originates at the tip and extends through the vertebral canal to the second sacral vertebra, ultimately becoming part of the coccygeal ligament
each segment of the spinal cord associated with a pair of a) ____ ___ _____ and pairs of b) _____ ____ and c)_____ ____
-dorsal root ganglia
what represents exceptions in that the dorsal roots are absent in many individuals
-the first cervical and first coccygeal nerves
sensory and motor fibers unite as a single _____ _____ distal to each dorsal root ganglion
inferior extension of the ventral and dorsal roots and the filum terminale in the vertebral canal
-series of specialized membranes that provide physical stability and shock absorption for neural tissues of the spinal cord
paired supporting fibers binding the spinal pia mater and arachnoid mater to prevent side-to-side or inferior movement of the spinal cord
separates the sensory nuclei from the motor nuclei
-frontal section along the axis of the central canal
contain the axons of interneurons that cross from one side of the cord to the other
each spinal nerve is ensheated by a series of connective tissue layers
middle layer of spinal nerve that partitions the nerve into a series of bundles (fascicles) and conveys blood vessels into each individual fiber
inner layer of spinal nerve that is composed of delicate connective tissue fibers that surround individual axons
-carry axons that innervate glands and smooth muscles in the body wall or limbs back to the spinal nerve
plexus in which muscles of the neck are innervated, and some branches extend into the thoracic cavity to the diaphragm
superior, middle, and inferior trunks give rise to the
-lateral cord, medial cord, and posterior cord
what 2 plexuses collectively originate from the posterior abdominal wall and ventral rami of nerves supply the pelvic girdle and lower limb
a ______ is a specialized cell that monitors condition in the body or external environment
neural reflex steps
-1) arrival of a stimulus and activation of a receptor
-2) relay of information to the cns
-3) information processing
-4) activation of a motor neuron
-5) response by a peripheral effectors
reflexes classified by
1) their development (innate, acquired)
2) where information is processed (spinal, cranial)
3) motor response (somatic, visceral)
4) complexity of the neural circuit (monosynaptic, polysynaptic)
reflex where the important interconnections and processing occur inside the spinal cord
-have at least one interneuron places between the sensory afferent and the motor efferent
spinal reflexes range from simple a)______reflexes to more complex b)_______reflexes
complex polysynaptic reflexes
-many segments of the cord interact to produce a coordinated motor response
-a monosynaptic reflex that automatically regulates skeletal muscle length and muscle tone.
reflex the familiar knee jerk, where in a rap on the patellar ligament stretches the muscle spindles in the quadriceps muscles.
what can enhance or inhibit reflex motor patterns based in the spinal cord
-higher centers in the brain
the _____ ______ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament
axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the
the paired structures that contain cell bodies of sensory neurons and are associated with each segment of the spinal cord are the
-dorsal root ganglia
sensory and motor innervations of the skin of the lateral and ventral surfaces of the body are provided by the
-innervates the shoulder girdle and the upper extremity, is formed from the ventral rami of spinal nerves c5-t1, and is the source of the musculocutaneous, radial, median, and ulnar nerves
the expanded area of the spinal cord that supplies nerves to the pectoral girdle and upper limbs is the
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