APUSH Ch. 8
SUA Mrs. Gray's AP US History Unit 2 ch. 8
Terms in this set (25)
Bloodshed at Lexington and Concord in April of 1775 was a clarion call to arms. About 20,000 musket-bearing "_____" swarmed around Boston, there to coop up the outnumbered British.
Second Continental Congress (1775)
It met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775, and this time all 13 colonies were represented. The conservative Congresss was still strong, despite the shooting in Massachusetts. There was still no want for independence - just desire to keep fighting sin the hope that the king and Parliament would consent to a redress of grievences. They adopted a measure to raise money and to create and army and navy.
General George Washington
Perhaps the most important single action of the Congress was to select this man, one of its members already in a officer's uniform, to head the hastily improvised army besieging Boston. He had great leadership skills and immense strength of character that lead the people to trust him. They sensed that when he put himself at the head of a cause, he was prepared, if necessary, to go down with the ship.
Ethan Allen, Benedict Arnold, fort Ticonderoga
In May 1775, a tiny American force under ____ and ____ surprised and captured the British garrisons at ____ and Crown Point. A priceless store of gunpowder and artillery for the siege of Boston was thus secured.
Bunker (Breed) Hill
In June 1775 the colonists seized a hill from which which they menaced the enemy in Boston. The British, instead of cutting off the retreat of their foes by flanking them, blundered bloodily when they launched a frontal attack with 3,000 men. The 15,000 Americans mowed down the advancing redcoats. However, the colonist supply of gun powder ran out, and they were forced to abandon the hill.
Olive Branch Petition
In July 1775, the Continental Congress adopted the ______, professing American loyalty to the crown and begging the king to prevent further hostilities. But following Bunker Hill, King George III slammed the door on all hope of reconciliation. In August 1775 he formally proclaimed the colonies in rebellion; the skirmishes were now out-and-out treason, a hanging crime.
failed invasion of Canada
In Fall 1775, American leaders believed (erroneously) that the conquered French were explosively restive under the British yoke. A successful assault on Canada would add a fourteenth colony, while depriving Britain of a valuable base for striking at the colonies in revolt. The attack, involving some two thousand American troops, contradicted the claim of the colonists fighting defensively for a redress of grievances. Invasion northward was undisguised offensive warfare. The attack narrowly missed success. The French, who were well treated by the Quebec Act of 1774, had no desire to revolt.
British evacuation of Boston
In March the British were forced to evacuate Boston, taking with them the leading friends of the King.
Thomas Paine's "Common Sense"
In 1776, ____ was published. It is considered one of the most influential pamphlets ever written. Its author was the radical Thomas Paine. His tract became a best seller and within a few months, reaching an astonishing total of 120,000 copies. Paine argued that the tiny island of Britain could not control the vast continent of North America. Paine claimed the king was nothing but "the Royal Brute of Great Britain." He for a new kind of society: a republic. He didn't only want independence, he wanted a new kind of political society: a republic. He wanted government run by the people.
Thomas Jefferson (Enlightenment)
Shortly after Richard Henry Lee moved that "these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states," Congress appointed a committee to prepare a more formal statement of separation (Declaration of Independence). The task of drafting it fell to ____. Despite his youth, he was already recognized as a brilliant writer, and he measured up splendidly to the assignment. He gave his appeal universality by invoking the "natural rights" of humankind (from the Enlightenment) - not just British rights.
Declaration of Independence; July 4, 1776
It was formally approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. It might better have been called "the Explanation of Independence." Jefferson gave his appeal universality by invoking the "natural rights" of humankind (from the Enlightenment) - not just British rights. It also had a list of the presumably tyrannous misdeeds of George III. It allows foreign aid to be solicited with greater hope of success. Those Patriots who defied the king were now rebels, not loving subjects shooting their way into reconciliation.
American Revolution, patriots
AKA War of Independence. It was a war within a war: loyalists (Tories; loyal to the King) against patriots (American rebels; aka Whigs), who also fought the British redcoats. It was minority movement with many colonist apathetic or neutral. ADD MORE pg. 146
loyalists (Tories; problems they faced)
Loyalists were also called Tories after the dominant political factions in Britain. A Tory is a thing whose head is in England, and its body in America, and its neck ought to be stretched. They numbered about 16% of the population. They were least numerous in New England. They remained true to their king. Before the Declaration persecution of loyalists was relatively mild. Yet they were subjected to some brutality, including tarring and feathering. After the Declaration, which sharply separated Loyalists from Patriots, harsher methods prevailed.
Washington evacuates New York
In July 1776, a British fleet of 500 ships appeared of the coast of New York. General Washington was dangerously out numbered, so he evacuated New York escaping to Manhattan Island in a fog. Retreating northward, he crossed the Hudson River to New Jersey and finally reached the Delaware River with he British close behind.
Battle of Trenton (Washington Crosses the Delaware)
Washington continued to retreat from New York across the Delaware River with the British close on his heels. Washington's opponent General William Howe decided to rest Christmas Eve. Washington recrossed the Delaware River and at Trenton on December 26, 1776, he surprised and captured a thousand Hessians who were sleeping off the effects of their Christmas celebration. A week later, he defeated a smaller British detachment at Princeton.
General Burgoyne and the Battle of Saratoga
He was to carry out London officials intricate scheme to cut of New England from the rest of the colonies by capturing the vital Hudson River valley in 1777, in hopes of paralyzing the American cause. The British were forced to go back to Canada and start a new the next year. Burgoyne had been slowed down north of Albany, while a host of American militiamen, scenting the kill, swarmed around him. Unable to advance or retreat, Burgoyne was forced to surrender his entire command at Saratoga on October 17, 1777, to the American general Horatio Gates. Saratoga ranks high among the decisive battles of both American and world history. The victory immensely revived the faltering colonial cause. Even more important, it made possible the urgently needed foreign aid from France, which in turn helped ensure American independence.
Ambassador to France Benjamin Franklin
Ben Franklin had been sent to Paris as an envoy, to negotiate the treaty with France. He was determined that his very appearance should herald the diplomatic revolution the Americans hoped to achieve. He violated every norm of diplomatic behaivor in his clothing and demeanor to show revolution. He shocked the royal court, besotted as it was with pomp and protocol. But ordinary Parisians adored him as a specimen of a new democratic social order, devoid of pretense and ornament. On Feburary 6, 1778, France offered the Americans a treaty of alliance. It did not conform to the Treaty that Franklin had brought with him - an early example of practical self-interest trumping abstract idealism in America's conduct of foreign affairs.
France, Spain, Holland join American efforts
In 1779, Spain and Holland joined the war against Britain. Combined Spanish and French fleets outnumbered those of Britain, and on two occasions the British Isles seemed to be at the mercy of hostile warships.
Benedict Arnold, traitor of West point
In 1780, General Benedict Arnold turned traitor when he plotted with the British to sell out the key stronghold of West Point for money and an officer's commission. By the sheerest accident, the plot was detected in the nick of time, and Arnold fled to the British.
British Southern strategy
The British meanwhile had devised a plant to roll up the colonies, beginning in the South where the Loyalists were numerous. The colony of Georgia was ruthlessly overrun in 1778-1779; Charleston, South Carolina fell in 1780. The surrender of the city to the British involved the capture of five thousand men and four hundred cannon and was a heavier loss to the Americans, in relation to existing strength, than that of Burgoyne was to the British. Warfare was now intensified in the Carolinas, where Patriots bitterly fought their Loyalist neighbors. ADD
George Rogers Clark in the Ohio Valley
In 1778-1779, George Roger Clark, conceived the idea of seizing forts in the Ohio valley by surprise, floated down the Ohio River with about 175 men, captured forts Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes. Clark's admirers have argued that his success forced the British to cede the region north of the Ohio River to the United States at the peace table in Paris.
These craft were privately owned armed ships - legalized pirates in a sense - specifically authorized by Congress to prey on enemy shipping. Altogether over a thousand American _____, responding to the call of patriotism and profit, sallied forth with about seventy thousand men ("sailors of fortune"). They captured some six hundred British prizes, while British warships captured about as many American merchantmen and privateers.
Battle of Yorktown (1780)
British general Cornwallis had fallen back to the Chesapeake Bay at Yorktown to await seaborne supplies and reinforcements, assuming the British would continue to control the sea. French Admiral Grasse added the Americans in an assault on Cornwallis. Washington beset the British by land while the French blockaded them from the sea. Cornwallis surrendered on October 19, 1781.
Franklin, J. Adams, John Jay
Three envoys with explicit instructions from Congress to make no separate peace and to consult with their French allies at all stages of the negotiations. John Jay was unwilling to let France take advantage of the United States. He spoke to Britain and a preliminary treaty of peace was signed in 1782. ADD
Treaty of Paris (1783), major parts
The British formally recognized the independence of the United States, granted generous boundaries, stretching from the Mississippi to the Great Lakes to Spanish Florida. They also received Newfoundland. Loyalists were not to be persecuted, Congress was to recommend to the state legislatures that confiscated Loyalist property be returned, and the states vowed to put no lawful obstacles in the way of the collection of debs owed to British creditors.