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50 terms

AP Psychology Personality

AP Psychology terminology for personality
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Personality
individual's unique patterns of thought, feelings, and behavior that persist over time; unique, stable, enduring
psychodynamic theories
theories that behavior results from the psychological forces that interact within the individual, often outside conscious awareness; linked by Freud
unconscious
prominent in Freudian theory; ideas, thoughts, feelings of which we are not aware normally; basis of psychoanalysis
psychoanalysis
Freud's theory of personality and form of therapy; based on bringing the conscious unconscious; uses techniques such as free association, dream interpretation, and transference
id
Freudian; unconscious urges and desires; selfish needs; operates on pleasure principle-any means to satisfy need; which fulfillment-mental object/situation to relieve the feeling
libido
Freudian idea that energy is from sexual instinct; Jungian idea that energy is everything
fixation
Freudian; partial or complete halt at one of the psychosexual stages of development; when individual fails to complete the psychosexual task successfully; can be expressed as personality traits
oral stage
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 0-18 months; focus: oral cavity; task: transition from bottle/breast to solid food; conflict: id derives pleasure from sucking/excepting into mouth; if child fails to complete tasks, (s)he becomes fixated; fixations-underindulged oral-suspicious, sarcastic, pessimistic, trust issues; overindulged oral-clingy, optimistic, gullible, needy
anal stage
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 18 months-3 years; focus: anus-retention/expulsion of species; task: to successfully learned toilet training; conflict: id derives pleasure from retention/expulsion, whereas ego and superego represents society the practical/societal pressures to control bodily functions; if child fails to complete the task,(s)he becomes fixated; fixations-anal expulsion-messy, disorganized, reckless, careless, defiant; anal-retentive-neat, precise, orderly, stingy, obstinate, meticulous, passive-aggressive
phallic stage
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 3-6 years; focus: genitals; task: Explorer genital region, develop a relationship with parents, especially same gender parent; conflict: Oedipus/Electra complex-child competes with same-sex parents were opposite sex parent's attention; fixations-male-Castration Anxiety-because father possesses mother and therefore has power, dad "castrates" sign (removes power), must prove self, dominant, marries mother figure; female-penis envy-according to Freud penis equals power, submissive, dates older men
archetypes
Jung; thought forms or collective memories passed down from generation to generation and stored in the collective unconscious; ancient/archaic images derived from the collective unconscious; examples-mother Earth, father Time, hero, wise old man, trickster, the Joker
persona
Jung; our public self; the mask we wear to project that part of our personality outward towards others
Anima
Jung; female archetype as expressed in a man; masculine side of a woman; originates in the collective unconscious; comes from women's experiences with men which create the concept of men, appears in dreams, visions, fantasies
Animus
Jung; male archetype as expressed in a woman; feminine side of man; originates in the collective unconscious; comes from men's experiences with women which combine into the concept of women; shows as an image of feelings/mood
Extrovert
aspect used in MBTI; Jung; one of two general attitude types; taken at the interest in the world and events around them, turn attention toward external world; energy is gained from outside or external sources; everyone contains both, one is dominant (extro-, introvert)
Anxiety
powerful motivating force; individuals reaction to real/imagine dangers; Freud says anxiety emerges from sexual conflicts; Horney says that comes because children depend on adults for survival, one defenses are threatened anxiety occurs
humanistic personality theory
normally associated with Maslow and Rogers; any personality theory that emphasizes that people are positively motivated and progress towards higher levels of functioning (more to human existence than dealing with hidden conflicts); stresses people to potential for growth and change as people experience life
personality traits
dimensions or characteristics that account for personality differences; examples-dependency, anxiety, sociability; Allport created a list of thousands
factor analysis
Cattell (1965); statistical technique; find that 200 traits tend to cluster in groups (traits are from Allport's/Odbert's lists)
cognitive-social learning theory
behavior is a product of the interaction of cognitive (thinking), learning, and past experiences; unique to each person
16 personality factor questionnaire
Cattell; personality boils down to 16 basic dimensions of personality; questionnaire used in universities and businesses for personnel selection and research
locus of control
Rotter; cognitive strategies; used to evaluate situations, reinforcement comes in two ways: internal-you control your fate, external-chance & fate, behavior of others determine destiny
self-efficacy
Bandura; cognitive social learning theory; expectancy that one's efforts will be successful
objective tests
personality test that is administered and scored in a standard way; personality inventory; yes/no are typical answers; most widely used; drawbacks-self-report, familiarity with other tests may affect individuals answers; examples-16 PF, and MBTI, MMPI(2), and NEO-PI-r
neurotic trends
Horney; neuroses = anxiety; 3 strategies for coping with neuroses created by unmet needs: a) moving towards people-submission-given in, having a dominant partner; be) moving against people-aggression-anger, violence, altercation; see) moving away from people-detachment-withdrawal, isolation
pleasure principle
Freud; id process by which the id seeks immediate gratification by any means necessary to receive pleasure and avoid pain; done in two ways-which fulfillment (day dream/dreams), ego processes
ego
Freud; part of the personality that mediates between the selfishness of the id and the conscientiousness of the superego; uses the reality principle to satisfy id without harming superego's ideals; "self"
reality principle
Freud; ego process; means by which the ego satisfies the id without compromising the value/morals are the superego
super ego
Freud; "moral watchdog"; governs behavior by reality and morality, often taught by parents, church and/or community; standards develop through interaction; conscience; ego ideal
ego ideal
Freud; ideal of perfection; part of the superego that consists of the standards of what you would like to be
Oedipus/Electra complex
Freud, conflict of psychosexual stages; phallic stage, ages 3-6; consists of a transition in the phallic stage; child competes the same-sex parent were opposite gender parent's attention; can manifest in later personality-male: castration anxiety, dominant, tries to prove self, marries "mom"; female: penis envy, submissive, dates older men (like dad)
Latency period
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 6-12; sexual drive lies dormant, focuses on social nature and development of friendships, seen as period of repression (as sexual drives), all libido energy is poured into school and sports
genital stage
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 12+; focus: genitals; task: intimate and sexual relationships; conflict: if fixated in previous stages, it may reappear
personal unconscious
Jung; one of two levels; contains individuals repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, and undeveloped ideas; can be triggered; similar to Freud's unconscious and preconscious
collective unconscious
Jung; memories/behavior patterns inherited from past generations; shared by all humans; deep roots in the ancestral past an entire species; manifest as archetypes, myths, and legends
introvert
aspect used in MBTI; Jung; one of two general attitude types; caught up in personal world, unsociable, lack confidence in dealing with people; energy is gained from within self, long exposure to people is draining; one is dominant (extro-, introvert)
rational individuals
Jung; further division of people who regulate actions by thinking and feeling; aspect used in MBTI
irrational individuals
Jung; further division of people who base actions on perceptions, includes senses/sensation or unconscious/intuition; aspect used in MBTI
compensation
Adler; a person's effort to overcome imagined or real personal weakness: inferiority complex or superiority complex
inferiority complex
Adler; fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that result in emotional and social paralysis
conditional positive regard
Rogers; experience that love, acceptance, respect, and warmth, with the condition (or price tag); example: mommy doesn't love girls who do..., if you love me then..., that's nice but wouldn't you rather...
big five
type of trait theory; five basic traits: extroversion (where you draw energy from), conscientiousness (dependability), agree ability (how you get along with others), emotional stability (self-explanatory), openness (culture, new experiences)
actualizing tendency
Rogers; drive of individual to reach the biological potential or blueprint; capability of what someone can the calm
self-actualizing tendency
Rogers; drive of an individual to achieve his/her self-concept or self image; living up to the image of yourself that you create
MMPI
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (2), revised in 1980s; objective tests; most widely used object of personality test; originally developed as an aid in diagnosing psychiatric disorders; two versions-adult and adolescent
expectancies
Bandura; personal references; how people write their behavior in a variety of situations to help guide behavior in the future
projective tests
personality tests that consists of a simple ambiguous stimuli to elicit a number of responses; advantages-flexible, can take in a relaxed atmosphere, but this event may not know the purpose of the test (less likely to be of eight); examples-Rorschach, Rotter sentence completion test, TAT
Rorschach test
projective personality test; Hermann Rorschach, Swiss psychiatrist; inkblot test; person specifies what they see in each blot; and MMPI 2 is more valid
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
projective personality test; developed at Harvard by Murray and Associates; 20 cards with figures in ambiguous situations; person is asked to interpret the card (tell what is happening, leading up to and following the image); examined for content, language, consistency, organization, and originality
unconditional positive regard
Rogers; experience of being treated with warmth, respect, acceptance, and mob regardless of their feelings, attitudes and behaviors; example: I may not agree with what you do, but I love you can matter what