27 terms

AP Lang: Section Two - Argumentation

AP English Language Section Two terms, 2017
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ad hominem
A fallacy of argument in which a writer's claim is answered by irrelevant attacks on his or her character.
anecdotal fallacy
Misuse of anecdotal evidence is an informal fallacy, which places undue weight on experiences of close peers. (Comparative to hasty generalization) EX: "I know a person who..."
anticipated objection
The technique a writer/speaker uses in an argumentative text to address and answer objections, even though the audience has not yet given any.
appeal to authority
A form of argument in which expert opinion supports the argument's conclusion. (It is well known as a fallacy, however)
bandwagon appeal
A fallacy of argument in which a course of action is recommended on the grounds that everyone else is following it.
begging the question
A fallacy of an argument in which a claim is based on the very grounds that are in doubt or dispute. EX: "She can't be the thief; she's never stolen anything."
claim
The core of an argument, a stated opinion that the write supports with reasoning and evidence.
concession
Agreeing with the opposing viewpoint on a certain smaller point (but not in the larger argument)
counter-argument
The argument against the writer/speaker's position.
dogmatism
A fallacy of argument in which a claim is supported on the grounds that it is the only conclusion acceptable within a given community
deductive reasoning
A form of logic in which a conclusion is reached based on assuming a general principal (major premise) and then is applied to a specific case (minor premise).
either-or choice
A fallacy of argument in which a complicated issue is represented as offering only two possible courses of action, with one being vastly preferable to the other. (misrepresents and oversimplifies complicated arguments)
enthymeme
A statement that links a claim to a supporting reason. EX: "The bank will fail (claim) because it has lost its largest investors (reason)"
equivocation
A fallacy of argument in which a lie is given the appearance of truth, or in which the truth is misrepresented in deceptive language.
evidence
The information presented meant to persuade the audience of the author's position.
fallacy of argument
A flaw in the structure of an argument that renders its conclusion invalid or suspect.
faulty causality
Making the unwarranted assumption that because one event follows another, there is causation. Forms the basis of many superstitions.
hasty generalization
A fallacy of argument in which an inference is drawn from insufficient data.
inductive reasoning
The process of drawing a generalization on the basis of a number of specific examples.
invention
The process of drawing and creating arguments to support a claim.
non sequitur
A fallacy of argument in which claims, reasons, or warrants fail to connect logically; one point does not follow from another.
premise
A reason that supports the validity of a claim.
scare tactic
A fallacy of argument presenting an issue in terms of exaggerated threats or dangers.
slippery slope
The fallacy of an argument exaggerating the possibility that a relatively inconsequential action or choice today will have serious adverse consequences in the future.
spin
A kind of political advocacy that makes any fact or event, however unfavorable, serve a political purpose.
syllogism
From the Greek "reckoning together," it is a deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises (major and minor) that inevitably lead to a sound conclusion.
texas sharpshooter fallacy
An informal fallacy which is committed when differences in data are ignored, but similarities are stressed. From this reasoning, a false conclusion is inferred.