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Anatomy and Physiology-Muscle Tissue

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Skeletal muscle tissue
Striated, mostly voluntary (respiratory is involuntary), multinucleate (more than one nucleus) so lots of DNA to code for protein synthesis, tendon attaches muscle to bone
cardiac muscle tissue
Involuntary, straited and branched muscles, circulates, in heart
smooth muscle tissue
no striations and involuntary, found in walls of hollow visceral organs such as the stomach urinary bladder and respiratory packages, forces food and other substances through internal body channels
Functions of muscular tissue
functions of this tissue; body movement, stabilizing body positions, storing/moving substances within the body, producing heat
Properties of muscular tissue
properties that enable muscle to function and contribute to homeostasis. Excitability, Contractility, Extensibility, Elasticity.
subcutaneous layer
separates skin form muscles, provides a pathway in blood vessels and nerves to enter and exit muscles, and protects muscles from physical trauma.
Fascia
lines the body wall and limbs that surround and support muscles, allows free movement of muscles, carries nerves and blood vessels, and fills space between muscles.
tendon
Rope-like Fibrous connective tissue bands that connect skeletal muscles to bones
aponeuroses
Wide and flat sheet-like tendon joining one muscle w/another or w/bone.
somatic motor neurons
provide nerve impulses that stimulate skeletal muscle to contract.
blood capillaries
bring in O2 and nutrients and rmove heat and waste products of muscle metabolism
100/myoblasts
Each muscle fiber has ___ or more nuclei b/c it arises from the fusion of many ____
Sarcolemma
muscle fiber's plasma membrane
transverse tubules
small, cylindrical invaginations of the sarcolemma of striated muscle fibers that conduct muscle action potentials toward the center of the muscle fiber.
myofibrils
Each muscle fibers contain hundreds of ____
Myofibrils
contractile elements of skeletal muscle
Excitability
ability to respond to stimuli by producing electrical signals-action potential
action potential
travels down plasma membrane and can stimulate contraction
contractility
generates force and pulls on attached points
Extensibility
ability to be stretched
elasticity
the tendency of a body to return to its original shape and length after it has been stretched or compressed
striated
alternating light and dark bands
deep fascia
dense irregular connective tissue, lines body walls and limbs, binds muscles that perform related functions, carries blood and lymph vessels, nerves
epimysium
OUTER COVERING OF A MUSCLE
perimysium
surrounds 10-100 muscle fibers and separates them into bundles called fascicles
endomysium
penetrates interior of each fascicles separates individual muscle fibers from one another.
sarcoplasmic reticulum
endoplasmic reticulum of a cell
sarcoplasm
cytoplasm
myoglobin (reddish protein)
sarcoplasm contains...
Oxygen mitochondria
sarcoplasm binds___ and releases it to ___
terminal cisterns
enlarged sacs of SR
calcium
Sarcoplasmic reticulum has expanded portions that store...
thick and thin filaments
Myofibril contain 2 smaller structures called....
A band
darker middle part of the sarcomere, contains thick filaments
I band
lighter, less dense contains thin filaments
thick filaments
have head and tail regions
tropomyosin
covers myosin binding sites on the actin molecules
troponin
holds tropomyosin strands in place
creatine phosphate
high energy compound built up when muscles rest
smallest
slow oxidative fibers are the (size)....
fatigue
SOF are very ___ resistant
aerobic
SOF has ___ generation of ATP
SOF have red or white fibers
red-high myoglobin content
SOF- slow or fast contractions?
Slow
fatigue
Fast oxidative fibers are ___ resistant
aerobic
FOF- ___ generation of ATP
Fast
FOF- slow or fast contractions?
largest
Fast glycolytic fibers are the ___ fibers
fatigue
FGF ___ easily
white
FGF white or red fibers?
white fibers
low myoglobin
glycogen
FGF have high levels of ___
anaerobic
FGF- ___ generation of ATP
strong, fast
FGF___, ___ contractions