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N433 Frailty and Sarcopenia
Terms in this set (17)
What is frailty?
Biological syndrome that is identified by decreased reserve in multiple organ systems.
What can lead to frailty?
Initiated by disease, lack of activity, inadequate nutritional intake, stress, and/or physiologic changes of aging.
What is homeostenosis?
A decreased ability in the body's physiologic response to maintain homeostasis in times of acute stress.
What is the common outcome of frailty?
Increase risk for falls.
Worsening of ADL capacity.
Institutionalization and death.
What are some characteristics of the frailty phenotype?
Sarcopenia, anorexia, osteoporosis, fatigue, risk of falls, and poor physical health
What are some frailty indicators?
Low energy expenditure.
What does the FRAIL index stand for?
F for fatigue. R for resistance (walk up a flight of stairs). A for aerobic (walk one block). I for illness (5 or greater chronic conditions), and L for loss of weight (over 5% in one year).
What is sarcopenia?
Loss of skeletal muscle mass resulting in a decrease in physical strength and ability to perform ADLs.
What does the SARC-F screening stand for?
S for strength. A for assistance in walking. R for rise from chair. C for climb stairs. F for falls.
What is the significance of skeletal muscle?
Responsible for movement. Largest reserve of protein in the body. Muscle is the primary site of glucose uptake. Major consumer of energy and contributor to basal metabolic rate.
What are some factors that contribute to sarcopenia?
Loss of skeletal muscle fibers. Reduced testosterone and growth hormone levels. Inadequate calorie and protein intake. Physical inactivity. Diabetes.
Sarcopenia is the key feature of frailty
What is sarcopenic obesity?
Decrease in muscle mass and strength with an increase in fat mass.
T or F: Sarcopenic obese persons are 2-3 times more likely to report a decrease in IADLs than those who are obese and not sarcopenic.
What is an obesogenic environment?
The sum of influences that the surroundings, opportunities, or conditions of life have on promoting obesity in individuals or populations.
What is the recommended nutrition to prevent frailty and sarcopenia?
Protein intake recommended of 1.2 to 1.5 g per kg per day. Increase in calories of 260 per day with resistance training. Leucine amino acid supplements to improve handgrip strength and 6 min walking distance in older adults after 3 months. Vitamin D dose.
Describe resistance training as a form of treatment.
Most relevant protective countermeasure. Strong evidence for it. Improvement in muscle strength. Muscle strength increases after a few days of training and mass increases after 6-8 weeks of resistance training. Muscle must lift the weight and lower the weight. Resistance is increased gradually.
Describe how a resistance training program should work.
At least 2 but no more than 4 times per week with 48 hours in between sessions. 1 set of 10-15 repetitions of each of 8-10 exercises. Level of effort should be moderate.
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