Upgrade to remove ads
Ch. 1 Life-Span & Human Development
terms found in Ch. 1 The study of human development. Kail/Cavanaugh
Terms in this set (73)
The multidisciplinary study of how people change and how they remain the same over time.
The degree to which genetic or hereditary influences(nature) and experimental or environmental influences(nurture) determine the kind of person you are. Nature and nurture are mutually interactive influences.
Whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents a smooth progression throughout the life span(continuity) or a series of abrupt shifts(discontinuity).
Universal vs. Context-Specific Developmental Issue
Whether there is just one path of development or several paths.
A useful way to organize the biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces on human development.
Biological Forces: Genetics and Health
Prenatal development, brain maturation, puberty, and menopause are examples of both genetics and the effects of lifestyle factors, such as diet and exercise.
Psychological Forces: Known by our behavior
The internal cognitive, emotional, personality, perceptual, and related factors that influence behavior.
Sociocultural Forces: Race, Ethnicity, and Culture
A person's development as part of a much larger system with the influences of their parents, children and siblings as well as those outside of the family including family, friends, teachers, and co-workers. Society and how a person grows up play a key role.
Lifecycle Forces: Timing is Everything
The same event can have different effects depending on when it happens in a person's life.
The Forces Interact
No aspect of human development can be fully understood by examining the forces in isolation- all four must be considered in interaction.
The study of the brain and the nervous system, especially in terms of brain-behavior relationships.
An organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development.
Theories proposing that development is largely determined by how well people resolve conflicts they face at different ages.
Erikson's proposal that personality development is determined by the interaction of an internal maturational plan and external societal demands.
Eight stages of psychosocial development in Erikson's Theory
Basic trust vs. Mistrust
Birth to 1 year: To develop a sense that the world is safe, a "good place"
Autonomy vs. Shame
1 to 3 years: To realize that one is an independent person who can make decisions and doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
3 to 6 years: To develop the ability to try new things and to handle failure
Industry vs. Inferiority
6 years to adolescence: To learn basic skills and to work with others
Identity vs. Identity Confusion
Adolescents: To develop a lasting integrated sense of self
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Young adult: To commit to another in a loving relationship
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Middle Adulthood: To contribute to younger people through child rearing, child care, or other productive work
Integrity vs. Despair
Late Life: To view one's life as satisfactory and worth living
In Erikson's theory, the idea that each psychosocial strength has its own special period of particular importance
John Watson believed that infants' minds were "blank slates" and argued that learning determines what people will become. Experience is all that matters. Watson did little research but B.F. Skinner filled this gap.
Skinner: Operant Conditioning
In which the consequences of a behavior determine whether a behavior is repeated in the future. Two kinds of consequences were especially influential: Reinforcement and Punishment
A consequence that increases the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows. Positive reinforcement consists of giving a reward such as chocolate, gold stars, etc. Negative reinforcement is by taking away an unpleasant task when a desired task is accomplished.
A consequence that decreases the future likelihood of the behavior that follows. Punishment suppresses a behavior either by adding something aversive or by withholding a pleasant event.
Imitation or Observational Learning
Simply watching those around them. People are more likely imitate in the person they see is popular, smart, or talented. They're also more likely to imitate when the behavior they see is rewarded than when it is punished.
Refers to people's beliefs about their own abilities and talents. I.e. If you don't see yourself as being athletically skilled, you wouldn't likely try to imitate Lebron dunking a basketball even though he is popular.
There are three distinct approaches: Piaget's theory of cognitive development; people process as computers do, becoming more efficient over a life span; emphasis of culture on cognitive growth
Piaget believed that children naturally try to make sense of their world. Throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence, youngsters want to understand the workings of both the physical and the social world. He argued that children act like scientists, by creating theories and test them with their experiences.
Proposes that human cognition consists of mental hardware and mental software. As children age, they develop better hardware and software just as computers do as time goes by...
Vygotsky believed that the fundamental aim of all societies is to enable children to acquire essential cultural values and skills.
Human Development is inseparable from the environmental contexts in which a person develops. It proposes that all aspects of development are interconnected, like a spider's web, that no other aspect of development can be isolated from others and understood independently.
Proposed that the developing person is embedded in a series of complex and interactive systems. He divided the environment in four levels: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem.
Consists of people and objects in an individuals immediate environment. i.e. parents<-->child
Provides connections across microsystems, because what happens in one microsystem is likely to influence others. i.e. school, friends
Refers to social settings that a person may not experience firsthand but that still influence development. i.e. government and social policy, parents' social network, parents' places of business
The cultures and subcultures in which the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem are embedded. i.e. historical events, culture, ethnic group
People adapt most effectively when there is a good match between their abilities.
The demands put on them by the environment.
Human development is multiply determined and cannot be understood within the scope of a single framework. No single period of a person's life can be understood apart from its origins and its consequences. We must know what came before and it is likely to come afterward.
Development involves both growth and decline; as people grow in one area they may lose in another and at different rates. i.e. People's vocabulary ability tends to increase throughout life, but reaction time tends to slow down.
One's capacity is not predetermined or carved in stone. Many skills can be learned or improved with practice, even in later life.
Each of us develop within a particular set of circumstances determined by the historical time in which we are born and the culture in which we grow up.
How we develop results from the biological, psychological, sociocultural life cycle forces.
Selective Optimization with Compensation Model (SOC)
The three processes form a system of behavioral action that generates and regulates development and aging: Elective Selection, Optimization, and Compensation.
Occurs when one chooses to reduce one's involvement to fewer domains as a result of new demands or tasks, such as when a college student drops out of some organizations because of the amount of work required in the courses she is taking that term.
Occurs when this reduced involvement happens as a result of anticipated losses in personal or environmental resources, such as when an older person stops going to church because he can no longer drive.
Minimizing losses and maximizing gains. Find the best match possible between one's resources and one's desired goals.
Occurs when a person's skills have decreased so that they no longer function well in a particular domain. I.e. an injury reduces one's ability to drive then one might compensate by taking the bus.
Describes the ways in which various generations experience the biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces of development in their respective historical contexts: The individual timing of life events in relation to external historical events; the synchronization of individual transitions with collective familial ones, the impact of earlier life events, as shaped by its historical events, on subsequent ones.
involves watching people and carefully recording what they do or say.
People are observed as they behave spontaneously in a real-life situation.
differs from naturalistic observations in that the researcher creates a setting that is likely to bring out the behavior of interest.
People's answers to questions about the topics of interest. I.e. a questionnaire
the extent to which a measure provides a consistent index of characteristics
The extent to which a measure actually assesses what researchers think it does
Broad groups of people that are of interest to researchers
A subset of the population
Investigation looking at relations between variables as they exist naturally in the world
An expression of the strength and direction of a relation between two variables
A systematic way of manipulating they key factor(s) that the investigator thinks causes a particular behavior
the factor being manipulated
The behavior being observed
Method that involves gaining in-depth understanding of human behavior and what governs it
Longitudinal study research design in which the same individuals are observed or tested repeatedly at different points in their lives
study in which developmental differences are identified by testing people of different ages
Problem with cross-sectional designs in which differences between age groups(cohorts) may result as easily from environmental events as from developmental processes
developmental research design based on cross-sectional and longitudinal designs
a tool that enables researchers to synthesize the results of many studies to estimate relations between variables
unspecialized human or animal cells that can produce mature specialized body cells and at the same time replicate themselves: embryotic and "adult"
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Life-Span Human Development - Chapter 3 Genes, Env…
Life-Span Human Development - Chapter 4 Prenatal D…
Life-Span Human Development - Chapter 2 Theories o…
Life Span Human Development 7thE - ch 6, 7, 8, 9,…
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 1: The Study of Human Development
Ch.1 Human Development Terms
KSP 235: Chapter 1 Key Terms
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
2-15 Florida Insurance
2-15 Florida Insurance
2-15 Florida Insurance
2-15 Florida Insurance