Upgrade to remove ads
Ch. 11 Inductive Reasoning
Terms in this set (15)
What is the premise analogue?
What you are basing your conclusion on (Sample).
What is the conclusion analogue?
What you are drawing a conclusion about (Population or target).
What is the Attribute of Interest?
The thing you observe in the PA or sample that you predict will be true for the CA or population/target.
Arguments from Analogy
An inductive argument that something has an attribute because a similar thing has an attribute.
Four Guidelines for Evaluating Arguments from Analogy
1. The more similarities between PA and CA, the stronger the argument.
2. The more differences between PA and CA, the weaker the argument.
3. Given more than one PA, the larger the number of PA's, the larger the number of PA''s the stronger the argument.
4. Given more than one PA the fewer the contrary PA's the stronger the argument; the m ore contrary PA's the weaker.
Generalizing from a Sample (Inductive Generalizations)
When you reason that all, most, or some percentage of the members of a population have an attribute because all, most or some percentage of a sample of the population have that attribute.
Scientific Generalizing from a Sample (Statistical Generalizations)
Differs from everyday variety in that everyday samples are not scientifically selected to eliminate bias and probabilities in every day generalizations cannot be calculated precisely.
Two Guidelines for Evaluating Inductive Generalizations
1. The more biased the sample; the weaker the argument.
2. The smaller the sample; the weaker the argument.
Basic Guidelines for Statistical Generalizations
1. Random samples minimize bias
2. Large samples reduce error margin
Argues using inductive reasoning, from a generalization true for the most part of a particular case; uses this form:
Most Xs are Ys; this is an X; therefore this is a Y.
Three Principles for Forming Casual Hypothesis
1. Paired Unusual Events "If something unusual happens, look for something else unusual and consider whether it might be the cause".
2. Common Variable "A variable related to multiple occurrences of something may be related to it casually"
3. Co-Variation "If a variation in one phenomenon is accompanied by a variation in another consider whether the two phenomena may be related casually"
Confirming Casual Hypothesis
Three kinds of scientific investigations.
1. Randomized Controlled Experiments
2. Prospective Observational Study
3. Retrospective Observational Study
Randomized Controlled Experiment
Experimental Group: Is given "C".
Control Group: Is given nothing, or a placebo.
Researchers look for: "E"
Prospective Observational Study
Experimental Group: Already has "C".
Control Group: Should be similar to "experimental" group but without "C".
Researchers looking for: "E".
Retrospective Observational Study
Experimental Group:Already has "E".
Control Group: Should be similar to "experimental group" but without "E".
Researchers are looking for "C".
Sets with similar terms
Psychology Chapter 2
Psychology Chapter 2 Vocabulary
Discrete Math- Chapter 13 Vocabulary
Other sets by this creator
Ch 8 The Central Nervous System
Ch 11 Endocrine Glands
Chapter 10 Sensory Physiology