41 terms

AP Human Geography Population

These are the vocabulary words from Rubenstein's AP Human Geography textbook. Chapter-1: Thinking Geographically Chapter-2: Population Chapter-3: Migration Chapter-4: Folk and popular culture Chapter-5: Language Chapter-6: Religion Chapter-7: Ethnicity Chapter-8: Political Geography Chapter-9: Development Chapter-10: Agriculture Chapter-11: Industry Chapter-12: Services Chapter-13: Urban Patterns Chapter-14: Resource Issues
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Terms in this set (...)

arithmetic density
The total number of people divided by the total land area
Census
A complete enumeration of a population
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a society
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The number of deaths in a year per 1,000 people alive in a society
Demographic Transition
the process of change in a society's population as a combination of medical advances and economic development, affecting a population's desire and ability to control its own birth and death rates
Demography
the scientific study of population characteristics
Infant Mortality Rate
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old per 1000 live births in a society
Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate (NIR=CBR-CDR)
Physiological Population Density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
Population Density
A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land
Population Distribution
Description of locations on Earth's surface where populations live
Population Pyramid
A bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years.
Zero population growth (ZPG)
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Industrial Revolution
a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods and drastically altered society
Thomas Malthus
(1766-1834) An English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in food production, which would lead to widespread famine and disease.
Sustainability
the level of development that can be maintained without depleting resources
Cartography
The science or practice of drawing maps.
Hearth
The area where an idea or cultural trait originates
Spatial Distribution
The physical location of geographic phenomena across space
Fieldwork
The study of phenomena by visiting places and observing how people interact with and thereby change those places
Sequent Occupation
The idea that successive societies leave their cultural imprint on a place and each contributing to the cummulative cultural landscape
Scale
A representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certail level of reduction or generalization. i.e on maps the ratio of ground distance to map distance
Political Map
focuses solely on the state and national boundaries of a place. They also include the locations of cities - both large and small, depending on the detail of the map.
Physical Map
shows the physical landscape features of a place. They generally show things like mountains, rivers and lakes and water is always shown with blue. Usually shown with different colors and shades to show topography.
Topographic Map
Shows different physical landscape features. They use contour lines instead of colors to show changes in the landscape
Climate Map
Shows information about the climate of an area; like the specific climatic zones based on the temperature, the amount of snow an area receives or average number of cloudy days. These maps normally use colors to show different climatic areas.
Economic or Resource Map
shows the specific type of economic activity or natural resources present in an area through the use of different symbols or colors
Road Map
A map that depicts roads, routes, highways, major and minor cities, as well as airports and points of interest
Thematic Map
focuses on a particular theme or special topic and they are different from the six aforementioned general reference maps because they do not just show natural features like rivers, cities, political subdivisions, elevation and highways. If these items are on a thematic map, they are background information and are used as reference points to enhance the map's theme. i.e. WWII Maps, a Map of the Industrial Revolution, etc
Stable Population Level
a population which has constant mortality and fertility rates, and no migration, therefore a fixed age distribution and constant growth rate.
Carrying Capacity
The number of living beings (people) that a specific area can support. i.e. SDS can only hold/accomodate so many people, it has a carrying capacity. Once reached changes must be made to space, resources, and accessibility
MDC
More Developed Countries.
Average 10 years of schooling; a 98% Literacy Rate; sicker populations; and a Life Expectancy in the 70s.
Regions:
• North-America
• Western Europe
• Eastern Europe
• Japan
• South Pacific
LDC
Less Developed Countries.
Average a couple years of schooling; a 60% Literacy Rate; healthier populations; and a Life Expectancy in the 60s
Regions:
• Latin America
• East Asia
• Middle East
• Southeast Asia
• South Asia
• Sub-Saharan Africa
Hierarchical diffusion
Occurs when the diffusion innovation or concept spreads from a place or person of power or high susceptibility to another in a leveled pattern. Fashion, fads, trends, etc. Many people cutting their hair the way Taylor Swift did.
Stimulus Diffusion
Occurs when the innovative idea diffuses from its hearth outward, but the original idea is changed by the new adopters. Christianity and its many sects (Protestant, Baptist, Catholic etc) Different Menu items from McDonalds around the world.
Contagious Diffusion
Occurs when numerous places or people near the point of origin become adopters (or infected, in the case of a disease) Hinduism spreading throughout the Indian subcontinent
Relocation Diffusion
Involves the actual movement of the original adopters from their point of origin, or hearth, to a new place i.e. Spread of Christianity, when people moved and brought it with them
Formal Regions
Have one or more common characteristics that distinguish them from the surrounding area. i.e. states, countries, cities, areas of specific towns/cities/countries (wealthy vs. poor, industrial vs. residential) MEASURABLE DATA
Perceptual Regions
Defined by how the areas are perceived. Reflect people's feelings and emotions towards an area
Functional Regions
Defined by a system of interactions. Organized around a specific function (transportation, import/export)

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