95 terms

AP Psychology Sensation & Perception

AP Psychology terminology for sensation and perception
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Sensation
the raw data of experience; sensory stimulation; example are eyes only register light energy and ears only register wave energy
difference threshold
Just Noticeable Difference (JND); the smallest change in stimulation that you can detect 50% of the time; differs from one person to the other (and from moment to moment); tells us the flexibility of sensory systems
perception
the mental process of sorting, identifying, and arranging raw sensory data into meaningful patterns; Ex. how we distinguish between music and crying, how we take light and form a tree
Weber's law
developed the 1930s by Ernst Weber; the principle that accounts for how one notices JND for any cents by noticing a fraction or proportion of a stimulus; change necessary for JND-hearing 0.3%, taste 20%, weight 2%
Cornea
transparent protective coating over the front of the eye
Pupil
small opening in the center of the iris; color part of the eye
Adaptation
process by which our senses adjust to different levels of stimulation; in addition there are two types-light and dark; the sensitivity of rods and cones change accord how much light is available
Iris
the color part of the eye; made of muscle that contracts/relaxes to control the size of the people allowing light to enter the eye
Lens
transparent part of the eye behind the iris; focuses light on the retina; change shape to focus on objects;-if object is closed, muscles attach to the land contract to make lens around,-if object is far away, the muscles pull to flatten the lens
Rods
visual receptor cell; located in retina; 120 million in each eye; respond to varying degrees of light and dark; chiefly responsible for night vision and perception of brightness
Retina
the light-sensitive inner lining of the back of the eyeball; contains receptor cells
Cones
visual receptor cells; located in retina; 8 million in each eye; works best in bright light; chiefly responsible for viewing color; greatest density in the fovea
Fovea
located on retina, directly behind lens; is a depressed spot; Center a visual field; images are sharpest here; contains mostly cones
bipolar cells
specialize neuron located in the eye; as one dendrite and one axon; connects rods/cones to ganglion cells
light
electromagnetic energy; eyes are sensitive to this energy
visual acuity
the ability to distinguish fine details; acuity-Greek word for sharp
wavelengths
physical energy
dark adaptation
process by which rods and cones become more sensitive to light in lower levels of light; maximum sensitivity is achieved in 30 minutes; in dark, there is not enough energy to see colors, therefore only see black, white, gray
light adaptation
process by which rods and cones become less sensitive to light in increased levels of light; takes approximately 1 minute to adjust
optic chiasm
located near the base of the brain; point where some the fibers in the optic nerve crossover to the other side of the brain
afterimage
sensory experience that occurs after a visual experience has been removed; when eyes adjust to stimulation (or lack of) but they do not completely adjust/adapt
hue
color, or aspects of colors; most people can name 150
ganglion cells
neurons that connect the bipolar cells to the optic nerve; an interneuron; one million in each eye; summarizes and organizes data from rods/cones and sends it to the brain
saturation
how rich or vivid a color is, deep/saturated
optic nerve
bundle of axons from ganglion cells that carries no messages from the eye to the brain
brightness
how bright or dark a color is; based on the strength of light entering your eyes
blind spot
place on the retina out where the ganglion cells axons leads the eye; no receptors fantasy rods/cones) are located here
additive color mixing
mixing light waves to create new hues privacy colors)
subtractive color mixing
mixing of pigments to create hues; depending on the pigment, light may be absorbed or reflected
dichromats
people who only see two of the three primary colors; blind to read-green or blue-yellow; colorblind individuals
trichromatic theory
created by Hermann von Helmholtz; theory of color vision based on additive color mixing; suggest that the retina contains three types of color receptors, cones: red, green, blue
opponent-process theory
created by Edward Hering; alternative theory used to explain after images; suggest that the retina contains three pairs color receptors or cones-yellow-blue, red-green, black-white; pairs work in opposition
colorblindness
inability to see certain color combinations: red-green or blue-yellow; 10% are male and 1% are female
sound
brains interpretation to changes in air pressure purposely soundwaves) as it passes through the ear
trichromats
individuals with normal color vision
soundwaves
changes in air pressure caused when the molecules of air or fluid collide with one another and move apart again
monochromats
individuals who see no color at all; respond only to shades of light and dark; very rare
ossicles
the middle ear; contains the hammer, anvil, and stirrup which are the smallest three bones the body; when the eardrum quivers it causes the hammer, anvil, and stirrup to hit each other in sequence, then carry the vibrations to the inner ear; stirrup catch the oval window
frequency
the number of cycles per second in a soundwaves; the primary determinant of page; expressed in hertz (Hz) unit
Hertz (Hz)
unit that measures frequency a soundwaves or cycles per second
Timbre
the quality or texture of sound; caused by overtones
Pitch
auditory experience corresponding to the frequency of sound vibrations, resulting in a higher or lower tone; humans respond to 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz
absolute threshold
minimal amount of energy required to produce any sensation; taste-1 g salt and 500 L of water, smell-one draw perfume in a three room apartment, touch-wing of the bee at 1 cm, hearing-pick of the watch 20 feet in a quiet room, vision-candle flame 30 miles on a clear night
Hammer, anvil, and stirrup
middle ear; free tiniest bones in the body; quivering of eardrum causes these bounds to hate in sequence and carry vibrations to the oval window
amplitude
the magnitude of the way; combined with frequency, it determines loudness; measured in decibels
oval window
membrane between the middle and inner ear; attach to stirrup of middle ear and cochlea of the inner ear; since vibrations to the cochlea
decibel (dB)
unit of measurement; measures loudness
round window
located just below the oval window; equalize pressure in the inner ear
overtones
tones that result from soundwaves that are multiples of the basic town; primary determinant of timbre; created by musical instruments
cochlea
snail-shaped structure in the inner ear; contains fluid that vibrate; attach the oval window and basilar membrane
basilar membrane
part of the inner ear; divides the cochlea lengthwise; stiff near the oval window but becomes flexible by the other end; as the fluid in the cochlea begins to move, the basilar membrane ripples in response
volley principle
a modified or refined frequency theory; suggest that the auditory neurons fire in the sequence increasing to a rapid series of impulses; the complete pattern corresponds to the frequency of a soundwave
organ of Corti
part of the inner ear; structure on service and basilar membrane that connects thousands of tiny hair cells (receptor cells) for hearing; each hair is taught by fibers that push and pull the vibrations of the basilar membrane and brain pools the information
olfactory epithelium
patch of tissue in nasal cavity that contains receptor cells
auditory nerve
bundle of axons from the organ of Corti to the brain
olfactory bulb
axons of olfactory epithelium connects to olfactory bulb, which is considered the smell center of the brain; olfactory bulb records messages and send them to the temporal lobe and brain core
Place theory
one unto basic views of pitch discrimination; brain determines pitch by the place on the basilar membrane with the messages strongest; the highest frequency sounds cause the greatest vibrations at the stiff base of the basilar membrane
pheromones
often considered a nonfunctional relic of human past; it animals, it provides information about another animals identity or status (i.e. stress); secreted by glands or in urine that has effects on other animals behavior; stimulates vomeronasal organ (VNO); colorless molecules
vomeronasal organ (VNO)
located in the root of the nasal cavity; stimulated by pheromones; sends messages to a second olfactory bulb (and animals) that is designed to enter their mobile communication; activates hypothalamus and amygdala; dismissed as nonfunctional in humans
taste buds
receptor cells onsides, depth, and back of tongue; pairs with smell to determine flavors; recognizes for basic taste qualities: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter; adults have 10,000 but they decrease with age; research looking at umami<-- sensitivity to MSG and proteins
vestibular sense
sense of equilibrium-orientation and/or position in space; originates in inner ear-movement of fluid in the semicircular canals relays messages about speed and direction of body rotation
papillae
small bulbs on tongue that contain taste buds; the eye and replace every seven days
semicircular canals
three circular-like canals attached to the cochlea their relays messages about speed and direction of body rotation (vestibular sense)
kinesthetic senses
sense of muscle movement, posture, and strain on muscles/joints; provides information on speed and direction of movement; works with vestibular sense
vestibular sacs
two sacks in the inner ear by the semicircular canals that since gravitation forward, backward, and vertical movement
stretch receptors
works with kinesthetic senses; specialized nerve endings that are attached to muscle fibers that sense of muscle stretches and contractions
gate control theory
theory of pain sensitivity; suggest that there is a "neurological gate" in spinal cord that controls transmission of pain impulses to the brain; individual differences vary the control of the gate
golgi tendon organs
works with kinesthetic senses; specialized nerve endings attached to tendon (attaches muscles and bones) and sense movement
placebo effect
pain relief that occurs when a person believes that a pill or procedure will reduce pain; most likely caused by endorphin release
figure/ground
a gestalt-like illusion; an illusion where a figure of merges from the background (ground) using perceptual cues
shape constancy
tendency to see an object as the same shape no matter the angle it is viewed from; example-closed door collusion
brightness constancy
tendency to see an object
feature detectors
specialized brain cells that respond to particular elements such as movement or lines; discovered by David Hubel and Torsten Weisel
color constancy
tendency to perceive familiar objects as a color despite changes in sensory information; example-blue under fluorescent lights but not so blue and natural light--> it is still blue
perceptual constancy
tendency to see/perceive objects as stable and unchanging; example-a white house is still white no matter the elimination or angle
monocular cues
visual messages/cues that only require one eye
size constancy
the perception of an object as the same size regardless of the distance from which it is viewed; example someone height
binoculars cues
visual messages/cues that require the use of two eyes
superposition
an object appears closer because the images superimposed on the top of the other image; example-one card laying on top of another card
shadowing
illusion that gives depth to spherical objects to give it a three-dimensional quality
linear perspective
binocular cue; used to cue distance in depth by allowing two parallel lines to come together at a horizon
motion parallex
binocular distance cubed; objects close to you seem to move in the direction opposite from the way in which your head is moving; objects far away seem to move in the same direction; example-when you're driving in the car
aerial perspective
binocular cue; distance and depth; distant objects appear hazy and blurred
stereoscopic vision
combination of two retinal images to give a 3-D perceptual experience
elevation
suggestion of depth because one object is appreciatively smaller; vestibular
retinal disparity
binocular distance cue; based on the overlay of two retinal fields when both eyes focus on one object
texture gradient
binocular cue; judges distance and depth in the objects in the foreground are large and clear but distant objects are smooth and less textured
convergence
binoculars cue; visual depth cue; muscles controlling eye movement as the eyes turned inward to view a nearby stimulus
monaural cues
cues sound location that requires just one ear
binaural cues
cues sound location that requires both ears
autokinetic illusion
illusion of apparent movement; when a stationary object is perceived to move
stroboscopic motion
illusion of apparent movement; result from flashing a series of still pictures in rapid succession; example-motion picture
phi phenomenon
illusion of apparent movement; caused by flashing lights in the sequence; example-neon lights
physical illusion
optical phenomenon; illusion produced by reflection of light into hot air; example-mirage
perceptual illusion
illusion due to misleading cues in stimuli; inaccurate or impossible perceptions

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