telling of a story that determines approach, advances the plot
prepping the reader for the future; hints
stream of consciousness
attempts to reproduce the full and uninterrupted flow of a character's mental process, in which ideas, memories, and sense impressions mingle without logical transitions. Need not use conventional grammar.
scene that interrupts present action to depict earlier event
story that contains another story/stories. Usually significant to the main story
projection into future (flash forwarded)
glimpses of the future; often creates suspense/curiosity
the speed (ex: quickly, slowly) of the story/novel/poem
point of view
the person or intelligence a writer creates to tell the story
The voice used by another author to tell a story or speak a poem. The speaker is often a created identity, and should not automatically be equated with the author's self.
speaker of the story with specific types
Point of view using I; usually a major participant in the action; sometimes unreliable.
Point of view using YOU (rare)
Third person limited
Point of view limited to one or only a few characters' thoughts/feelings, uses he, she, it
third person omniscient
Point of view that is reliable, but can conceal or reveal at will; uses he, she, it
"actor's mask"; 1st person narrator is fiction/poetry. View may differ from author's
exchange of words between characters
the stream of consciousness revelation of a character's internal thoughts; often relies on sub linguistic level (images and connotations reveal thoughts).
an invitation to compare/contrast different elements in the story, meaning that two elements line up side by side in such an obvious way that the reader can't help but see their likenesses and differences
final revelations that occur after the main conflict is resolved
persuasive technique; questions that need no answer because its goal is to make you think, get it?
blanks in text that must be filled in by readers (is it really rare there, or is it a product of different readers' perceptions?)
a 2nd plot (usually minor characters); usually resolved by events that figure into the main plot
Resources of language
to compare in order to show differences
The return of a word, phrase, stanze form, or effect in any form of literature; an effective literary device that may bring comfort, suggest order, or add special meaning to a piece of literature.
a statement that seems absurd but is somehow valid.
reference to famous person, place, thing, or even literary work
representing something as less important than it is
A protagonist who comes to a bad end as a result of his own behavior, usually cased by a specific personality disorder or character flaw.
exaggerated verbal irony; states the opposite of what's meant, usually to hurt (translates in Greek "to tear flesh like dogs")
an exaggeration or other distortion of an individual's prominent features or characteristics to the point of making that individual appear ridiculous.
a sudden realization or understanding
intended meaning differs from the literal meaning
what is said is ironic; uses hyperbole, understatement, overstatement, opposite statement
reader knows things chatacter doesn't, consequently hearing things differently
wors, phrases, whole passages that emphasize ideas or images by using similar grammatical constructions
representing something more than itself, usually a concrete noun that stands for an abstract concept.