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Antibodies are

myelin sheath

Multiple sclerosis is caused by an autoimmune response that primarily affects the

broken skin

All but which of the following are good barriers to invasion by microbes?

helper T

Which cells cause rapid division of other lymphocytes?


Antibodies belong to a group of compounds known as


Which immunoglobulin is the most common in secretions?


The same bacteria that are associated with periodontitis are associated with


Which system involves plasma proteins activated when they contact a bacterial cell?

b cells

Which cells produce and secrete antibodies that set up bacterial invaders for subsequent destruction by macrophages?


A motor neuron and all the muscles under its control are called what kind of unit?


Four of the five answers listed below are regions of the vertebral column. Select the exception.

pelvic girdle

The top (proximal end) of the femur joins to the


The most freely movable joints are the ____ joints.


The mineral stored in greatest quantity in bones is


Straps of dense connective tissue that join bones to bones are called


Straps of dense connective tissue that join muscles to bones are called

Clostridium botulinum

Toxins produced by this bacterium stop the release of acetylcholine, preventing normal muscle contraction.


Filtration occurs in which section of mammalian nephrons?


The transfer of heat by air or water is called

plasma proteins

Which of the following substances is NOT filtered from the bloodstream?

ten days

How long after smoking marijuana can its breakdown product be detected in the urine?


What is the most abundant metabolic waste in urine produced by humans?


Toxic substances, such as ammonia and urea, which are routinely found in the blood, are metabolites of


The functional unit of the kidney is the

nephron tubules; peritubular capillaries

Reabsorption is the movement of water and solutes from the ____ to the ____.

both blood and interstitial fluid

Extracellular fluid is defined as


The greatest diversity of organisms in lake ecosystems is found in what zone?


A lake in which minerals are scarce is


The region where freshwater and saltwater mix is the

mole rats

Eusocial vertebrates include


The communication signal requiring the most minimal distance between the sender and receiver animals is

bacteria and fungi

Wastes would accumulate and most nutrients would stop cycling if the ____ in the ecosystem died.

accumulation of toxic pollutants as animals pass through a food chain

Biological magnification refers to the

It requires huge amounts of energy and produces huge amounts of salt residues.

Desalinization may not be a good method for producing large amounts of freshwater because

amount of energy stored in the plant tissue in excess of that used by autotrophs in their respiration

Net primary productivity is the


A one-way relationship in which one species benefits at the expense of another is called

intestinal tract

Which is an example of a habitat?


Most skin bacteria probably have what type of relationship with humans?

mechanical receptor

The organ of Corti is a

organ of corti

The place where vibrations are translated into patterns of nerve impulses is the


The highest concentration of cones is in the


The outer transparent protective cover of the eyeball is the


Increased pressure in the eye causes which of the following?

free nerve endings

Pain receptors are usually


hair cells are

blood system

Hormones are distributed throughout the body by the


The hormone that is antagonistic in action to glucagon is

metabolism and development

Thyroid hormone's main effect is on


What herbicide has been shown to be an endocrine disrupter?


Which gland enhances the immune function of T cells?


Excess glucose is converted into glycogen in the

posterior petuitary

The control over milk secretion, water balance, and labor in childbirth is mediated by the ____ gland.

medulla oblaganta

The pacemaker for inhalation is located in the

Oxygen uptake by blood capillaries in fish gills occurs.

Blood and water flowing in opposite directions, in conjunction with respiratory systems, is a mechanism that explains how


Actual exchange of gases in the lungs occurs in the

releases oxygen more readily in highly active tissues



When you swallow, the epiglottis covers the opening to the


The movement of both oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body is accomplished by


An oxygen storage pigment that is abundant in muscle cells is


Four of the five answers listed below are related by the same function. Select the exception.

africa; europe

The continent with the highest potential for human population growth rate was ____ and that with the lowest was ____.


Density-independent controls over population growth include

low productive rate; large offspring

Organisms that demonstrate a type I survivorship curve are characterized by

all of these

the biotic potential


Which is not a density-dependent, growth-limiting factor?

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