Bio 103 final study guide
Terms in this set (100)
What are the characteristics of life?
responsiveness to the environment, growth and change, ability to reproduce, have a metabolism and breathe, maintain homeostasis, being made of cells, and passing traits onto offspring
What is the smallest unit of life that is capable of performing all of the processes of life?
Hierarchy of life
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
the science of naming and classifying living organisms
What is a testable explanation for an observed phenomenon?
What is the ability to acquire, store, transfer, or use energy
What is the neutral subatomic particle called?
All atoms of an element have the same number of:
Electrons are shared in bonds called?
The atom that forms the backbone of organic compounds is:
A condensation (or dehydration synthesis) reaction typically produces?
The control group in an expiring is the ___________ for comparison
What does the nucleus of an atom contain?
protons and neutrons
What is a molecule?
A combination of 2 or more atoms
Many of the useful properties of water, such as surface tension and its use as an effective solvent, are due to the ________ of the water molecule.
The breakdown of large molecules by the addition of water and enzymes is an example of what kind of reaction?
The neutral subatomic particle is the:
What is a polysaccharide?
a carb whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together
__________ serve as a store of extra calories in many organisms.
______ contains protein-building instructions; double helix
What do ribosomes do for the cell?
they are the protein factories of the cell
__________ are made of phospholipids studded with proteins and other molecules.
Triglycerides are what type of macromolecule?
3 fatty acids
What is the nucleotide associated with providing/carrying energy for life processes?
what theory states that all living things are made up of cells?
What is the site of cellular respiration?
How would oxygen and carbon dioxide cross the plasma membrane without using energy?
Does active transport require ATP?
What are factors the affect simple diffusion?
Temperature, concentration of solute, concentration gradient, catalyst
When an atom or compound loses an electron, it is called?
a negative ion, it would be positive if it gained one
what are the reactants in photosynthesis?
water, light, and carbon dioxide
If a single-celled freshwater organisms, such as a protistan, is transferred to the salt water. What would most likely happen?
the cell will shrink, plasmolysis
What does the law of conservation of energy state?
energy can not be created nor destroyed
What factors may affect enzyme state?
enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, temperature, pH, salinty, activators, inhibators
The concept that energy can never be created or destroyed is a part of: the laws of
The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy occurs during?
When does the actual assembly of sugars occur during photosynthesis?
during the light dependent reaction
What are the products of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis?
ATP and NADPH
Where does glycolysis occur and how many ATP's does it yeild?
mitochondria and 2
When glucose is used as the energy source, the largest amount of ATP is produced during what phase?
electron transfer phosphorylation
Animals obtain their energy and carbon from organic compounds formed by___________
Chlorophyll reflects which color of light?
All living organisms use __________ for energy source.
Where does the Krebs (or Citric Acid) cycle take place in?
Fermentation is a type of __________ respiration.
The building blocks of nucleic acids are?
Any mistake in the replication of the DNA molecule is called a?
bases of DNA
thymine, cytosine, adenine, guanine
bases of RNA
uracil, cytosine, adenine, guanine
RNA transcription occurs in the:
What nitrogenous base is found in RNA but not in DNA
If the DNA triplets were: ATG-CGT, the mRNA codons would be?
The bonds formed between the nitrogenous bases in a DNA molecule are called?
In the comparison between a spiral staircase and a DNA molecule, the steps would correspond to the:
A linear sequence of DNA that contains the code for building a proteins is called:
The form of RNA that carries the code from the DNA to then sit where the proteins is assemble is called:
What carries amino acids to the ribosomes, where amino acids are linked together to form polypeptides?
Strictly speaking, mitosis meiosis are divisions of the:
When chromosomes become visible during prophase of mitosis it is the result of condensation of the ___________ molecules.
In mitosis, each new cell receives exact copies of the ________ chromosome
When do DNA molecules replicate?
when the DNA begins to "unzip"
When do chromosomes become aligned at the spindle equator during?
What type of cells are not associated with meiosis?
In mitosis, if a parent cell has 16 chromosomes, each daughter cell would have how many chromosomes?
Cells with two of each kind of chromosome are described by the term:
When do chromatids detach from one another and become visibly separate chromosomes during:
_________ reproduction leads to new combinations of genetic traits
Crossing over is one of the most important events in meiosis because:
it is when DNA is shared
Meiosis typically results in the production of ______
4 haploid cells
The most accurate description of an organisms with genotype AaBb is:
The distribution of cytoplasm to daughter cells is accomplished during:
Different, or alternative, forms of the same gene are called:
The sister chromatids of doubled chromosomes are held together by:
If short hair (L) is dominant to long hair (l), animals LL and Ll have the same:
In a Punnett square, the letters inside the boxes represent:
The type of inheritance that often results in a phenotype that is "in between" the two parental phenotypes is:
The observable outward expression of the genes of an individual are referred to as its:
If R is dominant to r, the offspring of the cross of RR with rr will:
_________ was the first person to study the principles of heredity; and is referred to as the "father of genetics"
Color blindness is an example of an ___ linked trait
The ABO blood types are controlled by _______ and _______
multiple alleles and codominance
In humans, chromosomes 1-22 are referred to as__________
A parent plant with the genotype RRYY will produce gametes that have:
Chromosomes other than those involved in sex determination are known as:
What is a karyotype?
the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism
An autosomal recessive disorder will appear in children of ______ that carry the gene.
_______ is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21
Who do males receive the gene from on X-linked diseases?
What 3 things could all be classified as pathogens
bacteria, fungi, protoza
general characteristics of bacterial
no membrane bound organelles, unicellular, and small
Males tend to be affected by more X-linked recessive genetic disorders than are females because:
males have only 1 X chromosome
Humans have ____ chromosomes per somatic cell
What are the three shapes of bacteria cells
What components does a virus have?
1. a nucleic acid genome
2. protein capsid
3. lipid envelope
The simplest and often single celled eukaryotes are the:
example of bacteria
Know that a nucleoid is only in prokaryotes and not in eukaryotes. What is a nucleoid?
where DNA is found in bacteria
Do bacterial cells have nucleus?