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chapters 16, 17, and 18
Vocabulary review for: Scientific Revolution The Enlightenment European States, International Wars and Social Change
Terms in this set (80)
Regarded Ptolemy's geocentric universe as too complicated.
Made astronomical observations from an island given him by the King of Denmark.
Advocated a geometric universe and tried to discover the "music of the spheres."
President of the Royal Society and only scientist buried in Westminster Abbey.
Discovered the circulation of blood and showed it was caused by the pumping of the heart.
Astronomer denied a post in the Berlin Academy
Defended Copernicus' system.
Royal Academy of Sciences
Louis IV's contribution to the French scientific revolution
a belief that the world is a living embodiment of the divine and a magic-mathematical study the physical world can lead to God
called for a total reconstruction of human knowledge, based now on scientific principles, which he gave concrete form.
French matematician who began but did not live to complete a work called Pensees, which he hoped would bridge the gap he saw growing between science and religion
an aristocratic British woman scientist who, despite her recognized achievements, was excluded from the Royal Society on the basis of her gender.
The Scientific Revolution
was more a gradual building on the accomplishments of previous centuries than a sudden shift in thought.
The greatest achievements in science during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries came in the areas of
astronomy, mechanics, and medicine
The general conception of the universe prior to Copernicus
held that the earth was at a stationary center, orbited by perfecdt crystalline spheres.
Galileo held that the planets were
composed of material much like that of earth.
Isaac Newton's scientific discoveries
formed the basis for universal physics until well into the twentieth century.
The role of women in the Scientific Revolution was best characterized by
the manner in which Margaret Cavendish debated science with men.
The overall effect of the Scientific Revolution on the querelles des femmes was to
justify the continuation of male dominance in the field.
Francis Bacon was important to the Scientific Revolution because of his emphasis on
experimentation and inductive reasoning.
Organized religion in the seventeenth century
rejected scientific discoveries that conflicted with Christian theology's view of the universe.
Science became an integral part of Western culture in the eighteenth century because
it offered a new means of making profit and maintaining social order
French aristocrat whose work The Spirit of the Laws claimed that thekey to good government was the separation of powers.
philosphe whose great contribution to the Enlightenment was the twenty-eight-volume Encyclopedia
book in which Jean-Jacques Rousseau explained his revolutionary theories on education
English writer who advocated better educational opportunities for women and equality of the sexes in marriage
Franz Joseph Haydn
one of the masters of "classical" music, he was a prolific composer of music both for the court and the public
a pioneer of the novel, he wrote about people without scruples who survived by their wits, including the character Tom Jones.
Italian reformer who argued that punishment should be designed to deter crime, not just to punish criminals
Protestant defended by Voltaire when falsely accused of murder
Belief in God as Creator without reference to Christian dogma
Rococo architect who built the Wurzburg REsidenz
Composer of the Baroque St. Matthew's Passion
Prodigy who wrote The Marriage of Figaro
Expelled from France in 1764
Form of Protestant mysticism that emphasized good works
The Enligtenment of the eighteenth century was characterized by the philosphes'
rejection of traditional Christian dogma.
The French philosophes
fashioned a grand, rational system of thought.
The form of religion called Deism was based on a
Newtonian view of the world as a machine created by God.
Voltaire was perhaps best known for his criticism of
religious and social intolerance
In his Social Contract, Rousseau expressed the belief that
a society achieves freedom by doing what is best for all.
Rococo architecture was
best expressed in the buildings of Balthasar Neumann.
European music of the eighteenth century was exemplified by the
operas of Amadeus Mozart, who shifted the locus of music from Italy to Austria.
The historical literature of the eighteenth century
paid careful attention to the economic and social causes of historical events.
Most eighteenth-century European educational institutions were
elitist and geared to the needs of the upper class.
A noticeable trend in eighteenth-century medicine was the
lessening of the older distinction between surgeon and physician.
Literacy rates in late eighteenth-century France were
generally higher than in the century before.
the nation created by the union of England and Scotland in 1707 under the Stuart dynasty
an area of England where the local landlord had the only vote and usually elected himself to Parliament because he had the borough "in his pocket"
leader of the British Parliament sho under the Hanoverian kings fashioned the modern office of prime minister
members of the Prussian landed nobility, used by Frederick William to staff his General Directory, his efficient bureaucracy
Frederick the Great
one of the best educated and most cultured monoarchs of the eighteenth century, a diligent ruler who made the Prussian government and miliary both efficient and honest.
ruler of Austria who abolished serfom, freed up the economy, and gave religious toleration to all, explaining that he had made philosophy his lawgiver.
leader of a mass revolt against the rule of Catherine the Great, leading her to repress the Russian peasantry even more than before the uprising
the small enterprise of the early industrial revolution in which spinners and weavers produced work in their own cottages
a tradition among the young British aristocrats of traveling across the continent of Europe in search of adventure, love, and art treasures before settling down to married life.
Order of St. Vincent de Paul
a Catholic example of the attempt by many churches to help the poor, like most of the others overwhelmed by the rapid increase in poverty
Austrian wife of French King Louis XVI
Journalist member of the British parliament whose quarrel with royalty led to reform
Austrian empress who led political and fiscal reforms
Loser of an empire on the Plains of Abraham
Agriculture experimenter who advocated keeping soil loose for air and moisture
Inventor of the "water frame" powered spinning wheel
Architect whose classical style influenced country homes of aristocrats
Sisters of Charity
Catholic organization dedicated to helping the poor
France during the eighteenth century
lost an empire and acquired a huge public debt.
Political developments in eighteenth-century Britain included
the increased power of the king's ministers to make public policy.
The British aristocracy of the eighteenth century
allowed the monarchy to maintain some power because of its own factional struggles.
In the eighteenth century, Prussia's
bureaucracy and military were dominated by Junkers.
Prussia's Frederick the Great succeeded in
making Prussia's scattered lands more unified and secure
The War of the Austrian Succession was caused by the fact that in 1740 the heir to the Austrian throne was a
woman, Maria Theresa.
The Austrian emperor Joseph II
was discouraged by the discontent that greeted his reforms.
The reforms of Joseph II included
complete religious toleration, the abolition of serfdom, establishment of the principle of equality of all before the law, and making German the language of the government.
Russia's Catherine the Great
followed successfully a policy of expansion against the Turks.
The partition of Poland in the late eighteenth century
showed that a nation in those days needed a strong king to survive.
Warfare on the continent of Europe during the eighteenth century was characterized by
limited objectives and elaborate maneuvers.
During the eighteenth century European society saw
newly married couples gaining independence from parents.
Population growth in the eighteenth century was due in part to
the end of the bubonic plague.
The English nobility's country houses
architecturally reflected individualistic trends.
The problem of eighteenth century European poverty was
made worse by the common belief that the poor were criminals.
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