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POLS Final Study Guide
Terms in this set (72)
Be able to define and recognize examples of political socialization
-the process through which an individual aquires their particular political orientation
- their knowledge, feeling, and evaluations regarding the political world
ex- major events, group identity, political parties, gender, age, and social clas
What is polling?
-is how we measure political opinion
-interviews or surveys with samples of citizens to estimate the feelings and beliefs of the entire population
based on a representative sample of a population
unscientific surveys used to gauge public opinion on variety of issues
polls conducted at selected polling places on election day
- made a quicker prediction of who won and analyze about candidate success
a measure of the accuracy of a public opinion poll
What is the sampling error, and what is the connection between the sampling error and the sample size?
the larger than sample size the smaller the sample error
a method of poll selecting that gives each person in a group the same chance of being selected
why is it important?
what was literary digest poll in 1936?
respondent chosen from magazine subscribers, telephone directories, and car registries
-more straw poll then scientific
what went wrong?
they did not have random sampling
-more upper class and mainly republican were targeted
Why does the media hold off on reporting the results of exit polls until after all polls close?
to not deter people from voting because of results from east coast votes
In what ways identified in class can the outcomes of polling be skewed?
1. question wording
2. ordering of questions
3.reliability of respondents
Be familiar with the general trend toward conflating the news with entertainment.
just a general trend.
negative affect on the quality of the news to be presented.
Be able to distinguish between examples of: Print media, Broadcast media, New media
NEW MEDIA- tv stations have websites, anything with online media
What is meant by saying the media is to be a "watchdog" of the government?
-watch and report the news
- helps american stay informed on what happening
-making sure the government doesn't do anything illegal without our knowledge
what issues are significant issues should be focused on ( congress and president)
media decides which issues they are going to play on and which issues they are not
process by which media influences they way views will interpret future events.
media can leave views to specific viewpoint by selective information
viewers go into somewhere feeling one way and come out feeling another way due to the media influence.
What are "soundbites"?
is a short clip of speech easily be fit into news broadcast
what did the framers originally want?
was to create a system without political parties.
Be familiar with the attitude toward parties in George Washington's Farewell Address
he is encouraging not to have political parties
What were the first two major political parties in America?
federalist and democratic republican
What are single-member legislative districts
-single-winner voting or winner takes all.
-officials select the candidate
known as "first past the post" (important)
what does the fact that we have them in America mean for the relative strength or weakness of parties?
weaker political parties.
How does it lend itself to having a two-party system?
makes it so we cant have 2 or more parties
- only two party system
- hold authority over parties involved
divided into few large district
-elect 20 or more members
-draw up a list fro candidates for each district
generally multiparty system
-multi member district
What is the term for the national party leadership structure?
- comes up with party platforms, list of rules, and policies stand for
How much control does this organization have over state parties?
has no control over state decisions
Who runs the party at the state level?
state central committee
- consists of professional staff plus 1000 party organization
Why does the local party "machine" have less influence than it used to?
1. the shift away from the spoil system
2. prevelence of primary election
What are the two major functions of the National Convention?
1. vote for party platform
2. nominate VP and President canidate
What is "responsible" government?
1. when the executive government is held accountable to the legislative government
2. whichever party is responsible for good or bad service is punished or rewarded
3. main word is accountability
According to the Responsible Party Government model, what are the 5 requirements in order to have responsible government?
1. each party clear program to voters
2. candidates pledge to carry out programs
3. voters decide based on competing programs
4. winning candidates carry out the program once elected
5. voters hold the responsible party accountable the next election
How well does each of these requirements fit with the American system and why?
they don't fit well in American system
What are political independents?
a voter who doesn't vote for the same political party from election to election, basically the voter is not consistent.
According to the article "Purple America" by Ansolabehere, Rodden, and Snyder, are most Americans ideological moderates or ideological extremists on economic issues and moral issues? Do American voters care more about economic issues or moral issues?
ideological moderates and Economic issues
current holder of political office, better name recognition
running against incumbent
a race without an incumbent
-someone has died/retired or brand new seat
an election in which political parties choose their candidates for general election
an election open to all eligible voters
a follow up election when no candidate receives the majority vote cast in original election.
voters are not required to declare party affiliation
only voters registered for their party may vote
Presidential elections vs. midterm elections
presidential elections- every four year and choose a president
midterm elections- every two years
-national election in which candidates for presidency and vp are not on the ballot
-in this election voters choose for U.S. house of reps and 1/3 of members in the senate
"Majority voting" vs. "plurality voting" systems and in which one will you see runoffs?
majority voting- more than half the votes and the majority votes
plurality voting- a voting system in which each voters is allowed to vote only one candidate, just need most votes
majority voting has run offs
Which state is the earliest presidential primary caucus?
Which state is the earliest presidential primary?
What is the name given for the first date (March 1 in 2016) in which a large number of states hold their presidential primary contest?
When is the party's nominee for President officially decided?
national party convention
Be familiar with the role of delegates in voting on the presidential nominee at the national convention. What is the difference between a Contested Convention and a Brokered Convention? What is the difference between Pledged Delegates and Superdelegates. Which party's convention (Republican or Democrat) will feature Superdelegates?
role of delegates- they choose the candidates they vote for. there tied to who won there state.
contested convention- if its unclear that the candidates going to win on the the first ballot
brokered convention- is where they have a first ballot and no candidate gets the majority
- backroom deals
pledged delegates- the obligated to vote for a candidate
super delegates- the can vote for whoever they want.
- democratic are typically super delegates.
What are critical elections?
1 or more groups of voters switch parties
What is a realignment?
critical elections persist over several elections
What 5 historical elections are traditionally agreed upon as being realigning elections? Which one of these is the most disputed? Know that, despite major partisan shifts among some groups of voters, there has been no generally agreed-upon realigning election since 1932.
1. Jefferson 1800
2. Jackson 1832
3. Lincoln 1860
4. McKinley 1896 ( most disputed)
5. FDR 1932
What is the goal of campaign finance reform?
to change the involvement of money in politics and to limit the money supply towards politics.
What was the major weakness of the Federal Election Campaign Act (1971)
it put limits on donation campaigns (hard money)
but the weakness was it didn't regulate donations to parties (soft money)
how was it addressed by the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (2002)?
it made bipartisan campaign reform act ban soft money
Know that the Supreme Court case Citizens United v. FEC overturned the part of the BCRA limiting advertisements by independent groups (such as "527 Organizations," not officially connected to the campaigns)
-one it put limit advertising by outside groups like super pacs.
BCRA- the 30 thing and 60 day thing can't run ads
citizen united said that was unconstitutional
super pacs can do any advertisement but not allowed to coordinate with the campaigns.
What are interest groups?
organized groups of individuals sharing common objectives who actively attempt to influence policy makers. can be local residents
What are lobbyists?
an organization or individual who attempts to influence legislation and administration decisions on government
-meet privately with decision makers
-may assist in drafting legislation/regulations
-largely based upon personal relationships.
Which Amendment to the Constitution is at least partially responsible for the preponderance of interest groups in this country?
Understand the Founders' fear of faction. According to the Anti-Federalists, what is the best way to protect against factions?
factions are groups that care more about themselves than the community as a whole
- less danger of faction in a small, homogenous society.
- wanted to reject the constitution
What was James Madison's argument in Federalist 10?
he argued that you cant eliminate factions b/c it will destroy liberty
-minority factions aren't a big problem just majority factions are.
What is the best way to guard against having a majority faction?
is to have a large diverse republic
public policy interest that are not recognized or addressed by a group at a particular time.
Free Rider Problem
the difficult interest groups faced was in recruiting members when the benefits they achieve can be gained without joining the group
Know, and be able to distinguish between, the three types of incentives Interest Groups can offer their members
1. solidary incentives
- sense of community
2. material incentives
3, purpose incentives
-want to make a differences
Be able to distinguish between "direct techniques" and "indirect techniques" used by Interest Groups
direct techniques- an interest group activity that involves personal interaction with government officials to further the group goals
ex: lobbying , rating legislators, and campaign assistance
indirect- a strategy employed by interest groups that use third parties to influence government officials
- also goes through the public
march, rallies, protest, and boycotts are examples
what are the 4 functions of interest groups
1. educate members and the public
2. represent their members to the government
3. provide information to the government
4. provide outlets for participation
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