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Religion Chapter 6 - Otterstetter
Terms in this set (43)
The church goes through changes. We believe these changes are guided by the Holy Spirit. How have the Sacraments changed over time?
Change came for the Church when it found itself in new cultural environments and when it was faced with situations where the old way of doing things no longer worked (like Baptism before death). Likewise, change and opportunities for renewal were sometimes deliberately sought by the people of God, particularly when the Church realized it had lost touch with some of its original roots. In these instances especially, the guidance of the Holy Spirit can be seen.
What were the first three Sacraments recognized in the Catholic Church?
Baptism, Eucharist, and Anointing of the Sick.
What were the Sacraments and the Church like prior to the year 400?
Christianity is illegal, Christian people greeted each other warmly, sang psalms enthusiastically, and listened to readings about Jesus from a Bishop. Only Baptized members of the Christian community could participate in certain rituals. There was only Baptism, Eucharist, and Laying on of the hands (an early form of Anointing of the Sick)
What are Christians known for during this period?
Their strong belief in one God and known for their high moral standards
What people are Christians especially concerned about?
The people who are overlooked by the rest of society - widows, orphans, slaves, foreigners, the poor.
What was unusual to the pagans about Christian people?
They were joyful in the face of death threats, and they promoted unity and equality
Which members of Christianity could participate in formal Christian rituals?
Only Baptized members
Who was Nero and was he bad or good for the spread of Christianity? Why or why not?
Nero was Roman Emperor from 54-68 AD. Even though Nero was evil and massacred Christians, he helped spread Christianity because his rein united Christians and pushed them to fight for their beliefs
Where did early Christian worshipers get their models for community life and ritual celebrations?
From the examples set by the very first Christian communities described in writings such as Saint Paul's epistles and Acts of the Apostles.
What is "agape" and why is it important in the life of the early Catholic community?
Agape is a friendship meal and is an early precursor to the Eucharist
How is the agape similar to today's mass?
There was singing, reading from Scriptures, preaching of a Homily by the Bishop (the ordained leader of the community who presided at its liturgical celebrations), and a sharing in the Eucharist
How was the word sacramentum first used?
At the time, Roman religious rites - such as the initiation ceremony for young Romans entering the army - were called sacramenta, the plural of sacramentum. Eventually, sacramenta was used to describe a variety of religious rituals practiced by Christians
How is Tertullian important to Catholic Sacraments?
Around the year 210, a Christian writer named Tertullian first used the Latin word sacramentum in a sense similar to how Catholic Christians use the word sacrament today. In his writings on Baptism, Tertullian borrowed the word to describe this Christian ritual.
Who lifted the ban on Christian worship in the year 313?
What was the official religion of the Roman Empire after the 4th century?
Briefly describe the life of the Church and the Sacraments between the years 400 and 1000 (the Dark Ages)
Roman Empire has fallen by this time. The Council of Chalcedon (the fourth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church) declared that the bishop of Rome was the highest authority in the church. There was a split between the Roman Rite of Catholicism and the Church in Constantinople (the Church in the East). St. Augustine establishes a permanent "seal" on Baptism as a sacrament - but had a very broad view of what a sacrament was (anything sacred was a sacrament in Augustine's view). During this time, Confirmation became separated from Baptism, Public penance was replaced by private confession, Lay involvement in the Mass decreased significantly, Marriage came to be seen as a sacramental rite, Anointing of the Sick became Anointing of the Dying, Priests were ordained to preside at liturgical functions as the bishop's representatives.
How were the dark ages brought about?
By the fall of the Roman Empire in the west.
In the year 330, Constantine moved the Roman Empire's headquarters. Where did he move it?
East from Rome to the city of Byzantium, or Constantinople.
Who declared that the bishop of Rome was the highest authority in the church? In what year?
The Council of Chalcedon in the year 451 AD
Explain briefly why the eastern and western Christian Churches split.
At the same time that the Council of Chalcedon declared that the bishop of Rome was the highest authority in the Church, the patriarch of Constantinople was named second in authority. Because of the split in the Roman Empire between Rome and Constantinople, relations between the church leaders of the two cities were frequently strained. Eventually, the tensions between western and eastern Christians resulted in a formal split between the Churches lead by the Bishop of Rome and those lead by the patriarch of Constantinople.
What is important about Augustine?
Augustine taught that Baptism had a permanent seal. Because a seal was conferred in the sacrament, Augustine spoke of the "administering" and "receiving" the sacraments, terms that eventually were tied to the other sacraments as well.
Today there are three sacraments that confer their own permanent character. Which ones are they?
Baptism, Holy Orders, Confirmation
Why did Augustine believe that almost anything could be a sacrament, or a sign of God?
Because all of creation is a reflection of God
Augustine divided the sacraments into two categories. What are they and what do they each mean?
"Sacrament of the Lord", such as sermons, prayers, reading of the Scriptures
"Sacraments of Action", such as the various symbols and rituals used in Christian worship.
Numerous developments in sacramental practices took place during the Dark ages. Name three of these practices.
Confirmation became separated from Baptism,
Public penance was replaced by private confession,
Lay involvement in the Mass decreased significantly,
Marriage came to be seen as a sacramental rite,
Anointing of the Sick became Anointing of the Dying,
Priests were ordained to preside at liturgical functions as the bishop's representatives.
Briefly describe the Church and sacraments during the years 1000 to 1300, the period known as the High Middle Ages.
Formality and relative stability were the hallmarks of the period between the years 1000 and 1300, a period often referred to as the High Middle Ages. Christian people's existence centered around the Church whether they were rich or poor. Baptism was done during infancy and Confirmation took place early on by the local bishop. Simple Roman Basilicas were gradually replaced by soaring Cathedrals. Everyone worshipped there from the Lord to the serf. Responsibility was to the local lord and bishop. Lay people took a silent and reverent place during worship services. Not being Christian meant not being a citizen. The Church was the center of life for the ordinary citizen of Europe. Church rituals are much more formal during this period. Mass is much more elaborate. It is one of the most significant periods of growth and change in the Catholic understanding of sacraments. The seven sacraments became officially recognized.
How were Medieval Catholics lives different from that of the early Christians?
Their existence centered around the Church whether they were rich or poor. Baptism was done during infancy and Confirmation took place early on by the local Bishop. Responsibility was to the local lord and bishop and lay people took a silent and reverent place during worship services. Not being a Christian meant not being a citizen. The Church was the center of their lives.
What were cathedrals symbolic of?
It was a "House of God" that expressed Harmony and Symmetry, giving a clear impression of an orderly universe.
What was the center of life for the ordinary citizen of Europe during the High Middle Ages?
When were the Seven Sacraments made official?
In the 13th century, the Second Council of Lyons affirmed that there were only seven official sacraments of the Church
Which council affirmed that there were only seven official Sacraments of the Church?
The Second Council of Lyons
What was Thomas Aquinas' most significant contribution to the Catholic Church in terms of the sacraments?
It came from his discussion of the sacraments as causes of God's grace. That is, not only were the sacraments signs of sacred reality, as Augustine and others had taught, but the sacraments also served as instruments that actually brought about God's grace.
Does a priest's holiness or sinfulness make a difference in the effect of a sacrament? Why or why not?
No, because the sacrament's power comes from God not from the minister's personal qualities.
What minimum requirements were set for a sacrament to be valid and therefore effective?
The proper materials, symbolic actions, and words to be used.
How did magical and superstitious beliefs bring about the Protestant Reformation?
A superstitious attitude suggests that God's power can be bought, bargained for, or manipulated to suit one's own ends. Superstition fails to distinguish magic from religion; it represents an attempt to control rather than accept God's power. By the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, abuses concerning the sacraments and other church practices were so out of hand that the situation was ripe for a religious revolution.
Who initiated the Protestant Reformation? What year did this happen?
Martin Luther in 1517
What was happening in the church during and after the years of the Protestant Reformation?
Church leaders gathered nine times to deal with clerical and political abuses in the church with little or no avail. The reform movement eventually organized itself into various Protestant denominations that denied the central authority of pope, the bishop of Rome.
What was the outcome of the Protestant Reformation?
Various Protestant denominations were formed and the Council of Trent was eventually held.
What was the Council of Trent and how is it important in the history of the Catholic Church?
It was held from 1545 - 1563 and addressed the concerns of the Protestant reformation. The council legislated practical changes aimed at eliminating abuses within the Church. It reaffirmed the belief that although the importance of performing good works cannot be denied, grace is an unmerited gift from God that cannot by bargained for. The council gave much of its attention to the sacraments reaffirming what was stated at the Council of Lyons.
What were the two main points stressed by the Council of Trent and what was the meaning of the points?
1. There are seven - and only seven - sacraments
2. The Church approves a scholastic understanding of the sacraments. (Sacraments are causes of grace and declared that the sacraments were necessary for salvation, and that they could convey grace in and of themselves)
What were the two effects of the Council of Trent?
The sacraments were solidified - they could no longer be changed, added to, or discarded. 2. The official Roman missal for the Mass and an official book on the rites of the other sacraments were published.
Describe briefly what happened during Vatican II and what effects it had on the sacraments?
Look at the last two pages of notes - briefly describe
Who was the pope that presided over Vatican II?
Pope John XXIII
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