Rhetorical Tradition Final Exam
Terms in this set (87)
A sign that is meaningful to the society and society must agree on its meaning
A sign that literally is what it is displaying
When the sign is linked to its meaning by association and/or cause
- Said: "Rhetoric is like a drug."
- 483-375 BC
- Wrote the Encomium of Helen
- Used beautiful language to persuade
- Created the methods of Chiamus, Antimetabole, and Anthesis.
- 436-338 BC
- Said: "Rhetoric is necessary in order for democracy to flourish."
- Wrote: Against the Sophists.
- Created the thematic and pragmatic methods
- Teacher of Aristotle
- Student of Socrates
- Questioned - "what is justice and what is beauty?"
- Called rhetoric a "knack"
- Concerned about the sustained use of rhetoric because it Manipulates audiences, Benefits those in power, Gains agreement without having to tell the truth, Coerce/Manipulate so justice cannot be achieved.
- Teacher of Plato
- Convicted for corrupting the youth, tried and executed by drinking hemlock.
- Studied the Natural World.
- 35BC - 100CE
- The citizens orator
- Said: "there is no naturally great speaker, they are only great through work and practice on their thoughts"
- Indefinite vs. Definite Questions
- The bases of: Existence, Definition, and Quality
- The sources of Proof
- Greatest Roman orator and rhetorical theorist of Rome
- Established the Canons of Rhetoric
- 400 - 320 BC
- Most impactful on rhetoric
- Interested in understanding the truth
- Said that: "truth and justice exist in the world naturally."
- Said that: "the human goal is that we are always seeking truth and justice because humans are naturally good."
- Established the Four Fold Functions of Rhetoric
- Used Logos, Pathos, Ethos
- Created deliberative, forensic, and epideietic speeches.
- The WOAT
- A French professor
-Took apart the canons because he believed they gave invention and organization to philosophy, left style and delivery to rhetoric, and severely damaged the study of rhetoric.
- The most important contemporary rhetorical theorist.
- Had a new look on rhetoric.
- Theorized aspects of rhetoric that had not been seriously considered or fully developed yet.
- Hoped rhetoric could be used to reach peace.
- Found how identification, terministic screens and dramatism leads to persuasion.
- Became a philosopher and rhetor after college, but goes to war and becomes a resistant during WWII.
- Attempts to find how persuasion changed after the war, and how it does not help us negotiate.
- Meets Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca at a party and wrote together; Which lead to their development of a New Theory of Argumentation.
- New Rhetoric
- The Truth and Lying in an Immoral Sense
- German philosopher who was best known for advocating for "becoming what one is."
- Questioned how powerful language is and how it is the reason we learn
- Reduced the importance of intellect.
- Said: "truths are illusions and language constructs reality through metaphors."
- French Philosopher
- The Perverse Implantation
- 1926-1984(died from aids at a young age)
- Most cited theorist in humanities
- Interested in the production of health
- The History of Sexuality
- Was a conservative
- Studied contemporary rhetoric
- Traveling teachers who wanted to be paid in response for their knowledge
- Form of proof through the use of logic.
- Syllogism and Enthymeme
- Things that are always true.
- A logical and complete argument
- Only establishes fact.
Ex. Major premise = "all men are mortal"
Minor premise = "Socrates is a man"
Conclusion = Socrates is mortal"
- 1 premise and the conclusion are given and the audience must find out the missing part.
- Works under the surface
- The audience must figure out the missing part without the rhetor stating it.
Syllogism is to _____________ as Enthymeme is to _______________
Logic and Rhetoric
- Proof based around character
- Finding reason through one's credibility
- How the character of the speaker influences the argument to the audience
- The use of human emotions
- Clarifies issues/Is a mechanism to aid, but not as a mechanism of persuasion.
The Canons of Rhetoric
- The effort the rhetor puts into creating a long lasting impression with the audience.
- Through memorizing and practicing
- The way you say things in order to persuade the audience.
- The style in which the rhetor communicates information
- How the rhetor presents their information through gestures, the use of media, and voice.
- The things that the rhetor uses to persuade the audience
- The order in which the story is told to make sense.
-The argument is only as good as the order in which it is delivered in.
- Sharing of information that can be used in the future.
- Aids towards the development of goodwill.
- Deciding justice, focused on the past.
- Finding fault or blame
- Focus on defending or attacking
- Special occasion speeches (toasts or eulogies)
- Serves by Definition/Understanding, Shaping and Sharing Community, and Display/Entertainment
- Gives us a way to explain the social world that helps us feel more comfortable
- We understand in a more clear and defined way
Shaping and Sharing Community
- Useful when trying to gather a group around certain causes and issues
- How well they are able to move, persuade and entertain the audience.
- General form of technique
- Taking a phrase with two sides and flipping them
Ex. Foul is Fair and Fair is Foul
- Reasons for it: It sounds good, its memorable, it emphasizes the correlation between both sides, and strengthens the claim.
- To draw attention
- About opposites
- Consists of the 5 sources of great writing:
1. Vigor of Mental Conceptions
2. Strong and Inspired Emotions
3. Adequate Functioning of Figures
4. Nobility of Diction
5. Dignified and Distinguished Word Arrangement
Vigor of Mental Conceptions
- Thinking hard about something
Strong and Inspired Emotions
- Talk about the things in a passionate way
Adequate Functioning of Figures
- Right ways we use words to get people to compel
Nobility of Diction
- The actual words within the metaphor
Dignified and Distinguished Word Arrangement
- How to move people from idea to idea
The Rhetorical Situation
- All rhetoric is situational
- Elements in it: Exigence, Audience, Constraints
- A pressing problem that needs to be addressed/fixed
- The other side of the problem
- Could be either or could be both internal or external.
- Effects your ability to be fully involved in a situation (tiredness, hunger)
- Everyone can see it and it impacts the situation for everyone (temperature/lighting)
- "Rhetorical acts preformed in response to situations in which the rhetor felt directly or indirectly damaged by charges of inappropriate behaviors or poor judgement."
- Has 4 possible strategies and 4 possible outcomes
4 Possible Outcomes from Apologia
1. Absolution ("I am innocent")
2. Vindication ("I am not only innocent, but also more worthy than my accuser")
3. Explanation ("I had a good or just reason")
4. Justification ("I did it, but I am justified")
4 Possible Strategies from Apologia
1. Denial (negation)
2. Bolstering (align with the audience and their values)
3. Differentiation (redefine reality with new and old meanings)
4. Transcendence (look at the big picture)
The New Rhetoric
- Created by Lucie Olbrects-Tyteca and Chaim Perelman
- Move away from formal logic and into practical logic
- Audience is front and center.
- 2 key aspects:
1. Philosophy of Argument
2. Psychology of Audiences
Philosophy of Argument
1. Truth as a Process
2. Appreciation for the Irreducible Plurality of Voices
Psychology of Audiences
- Putting into consideration the kind of audience you are speaking to.
- Having a personal relationship
- Freedom to judge
- Values already having a place in the audience's thoughts.
Truth as a Process
- Truth is a thing that we build and build together.
- Everyone has different ideas of the truth
Appreciation for the Irreducible Plurality of Voices
- Need to appreciate that the opposing side or voice is fundamental and good even though it is different and hard to accept.
- Want for people to come together because of things that they have in common
- Putting yourself in another persons shoes and understanding their side.
- Aim is to decode visuals on a particular subject
- Based on taste, genre, etc.
- Need to do something
- Persuasive but a beautiful way to get you thinking
- Must be: Symbolic, Human Intervention, Presented to an audience with the purpose of communicating
- We study body rhetoric, photographs, monuments, museums, memorials, image events through this.
Responses to Visual Artifacts
- Dominant Readings
- Negotiated Readings
- Oppositional Readings
- Seeing a visual artifact for how it exactly is
- Look/Understand the visual piece of rhetoric
- Understand dominant message, but fundamentally disagree with it
- Developed in the early 1990's by a group of female rhetors who said the goal should not be to persuade but to invite.
- Theorized by Sonia Foss and Cindy Griffin
- No attempt to change the audience's view.
- Classified the existing kinds of rhetoric (conquest, conversion, advisory, invitational)
3 Assumptions of Invitational Rhetoric
1. Persuasion is a violation of the integrity of others
2. Attempts to change people are ineffective
3. We can only change ourselves
- A type of existing rhetoric with the goal to win an argument more than to effect listeners or to change their image of a subject in a significant way by...
1. proving you have the best argument
2. rules are established and followed
3. audience is opponents
- A type of existing rhetoric with the goal to convince the other party that their argument is better than the opposing by...
1. creating a compelling and appealing argument
2. induce adherence
3. develop identification
- A type of existing rhetoric with the goal to advise the audience of beneficial ideas
1. educate and enlighten the audience
2. create a relationship with the audience
- "Facts" that we take as true and believable
- Reorders knowledge within us
- Problematic because they shut down your ability to think critically
- Makes people feel worse about themselves
- Gives little room for critical thinking and disagreement
- "Lock us in place"
- Is content specific (where you live, who you are, what you are doing)
- Defined as the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions and direct behavior to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist
- Aims to push "emotional buttons"
- Is institutionally sponsored, fundamentally concerned with effects, aimed at the masses, relied on ideology, repressing towards dissent
- Can be supporting or undermining
- Has 3 different stages
- Aimed at furthering the public ideals
- Can be happy or upsetting
- Attempts to make the community better
- Pretends that it is for the public good, but it is not.
3 Stages of Propaganda
Techniques of Propaganda
- Name calling
- Glittering generalities
- "Plain folks"
- Card stacking
- Uninstitutionalized movements
- An organized collectivity of random people coming together with a common concern
- A group coming together that proposes or opposes change
- Can be innovative, revivalistic, or resistive movements
- Has 5 stages
5 Stages of a Social Movement
2. Social Unrest
3. Enthusiastic Mobilization
- There is no leader yet but ideas are emerging
Social Unrest Stage
- Start to take shape after the leader has been found
Enthusiastic Mobilization Stage
- When people start to enact plans
- More organization in the movement
- Leaders recognize they're losing more members than they are gaining
- People are reaching their goals
- Could be through force
- Loss of members
- Exists when the people are outside of the establishment, advocating for a social change.
- Happens when there is dissatisfaction, clear evidence of injustice, cannot get the establishment to listen.
- Has two different types
- A type of agitation that is to accept the value system but still want it to be adjusted
- A type of agitation that is a dispute to the legal system itself
Strategies and Tactics behind Agitation
- Nonviolent resistance
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