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Anthropology Diets Final Exam GOOD
Terms in this set (45)
Cultural Anthropology of Food
How food is defined, produced and consumed in cultural context. Food helps define communities, the way people eat, what people eat, and how they eat varies across time & space
Communities of Practice
Group of people with the same habits, knowledge, and expectations of behavior
Example: sharing manners & table etiquette
Example: Breakfast food vs. Dinner food
Example: A meal isn't a meal if you don't include meat in the USA / a meal isn't a meal in other parts of the world if it doesn't include rice
Example: Norman Rockwell "Freedom From Want"
shows respect to their dead loved ones by eating their bodies.
Food & Politics
Example: Potlach in Native North America
Outlawed under colonialism but continues to be practices
Family leader will hold the celebration such as: funerals, access of food, birth
Status came from the ability to give away an abundant amount of food
Biological Anthropology of Food
Interaction of nutrition, biology, and social content. (hunger & obesity)
Body changes in response to their environment
Example: Gestational Environment: Women who experienced diabetes or obesity while they were pregnant are more likely to have children who suffer from obesity or diabetes. These are gendered responsibilities.
World Systems Theory
Understanding the global economy by looking at movements between the core (where things are consumed) & periphery (where things are produced) areas
Reveals global divisions of labor
Area of high consumption & production of capital intensive goods
Areas of low consumption & high level of production of lower skilled & lower capital intensive goods. Dependent on core areas.
Example: Agricultural states in the USA are considered periphery although the USA as a whole is considered a core country.
Food & Colonialism
The gathering of food & items is a major drive of European colonialism. Sugar was a status item in Europe for ongoing struggle to preserve food for long-term sea voyages. As European powers wanted their own supply, so one of the things that fueled colonization was the search for new fishing grounds and new salt and also a location to cure salt cod. Fueling the colonization of North America.
Food Technology & Food Systems
Food preservation (salting cod) enables specific kinds of social organizations & lowers the cost of labor.
Enables long distance travel
Additional profit to be made in processing food
Ethical Consumption Movement
Political expression... into economic capital and channels through markets
Example: Twinkies - said to never go bad & never mold
- interference with the biological process that living things go through
Industrialization - related shift in main causes of sickness/illness that are related to the process of industrialization.
infectious disease & malnutrition --> chronic disease & obesity
Dangerous for young & older people
Obesity & Context
Impacts of industrialization, economics & culture.
About 2.3 million overweight adults in 2015
More caloric intake than energy being burned
Obesity & Biology
Some people are more biologically exposed to gaining weight
Weight is not an indicator of health, many people are thin & unhealthy
In Mexico: People go to work in the tourist industry & instead of growing their own food they started drinking coca-cola and consuming modern, inexpensive, high calorie products leading to obesity, chronic illness, diabetes, and malnutrition
replacement of subsistence farming with participation of cash economies.
Areas with barriers to access fresh food
Low income urban & rural areas without supermarkets
Famine (Causes & Consequences)
Catastrophic disruption of society.
Causes: poverty, historical processes, politics, social disruption
Consequences: death, health, loss of productive resources, migration
Food & Global Capitalism
global food systems disrupt local ones
"Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe & nutritious food to meet their dietary needs & food preferences for an active healthy life"
Not all diets are acceptable for all people & not only for life, but for an active life
More wage labor & less subsistence farming
Link between the number of households using food pantries & food assistance to the economy.
It is tied with the state of the economy & economic difficulty
History of the Fork
Was invented & used in Ancient Greece. It was not used widely throughout Europe until royals and aristocrats started using it.
Roots of Watermelon Stereotypes
Word spread by pro-slavery people saying that slavery wasn't that bad because slaves looked happy eating their watermelon. Raciest images promoted this.
On Valentine's day cards show different ethnic groups putting white people into a pot.
Wari' Mortuary Practices
Wari people from the Amazon show respect to their dead loved ones by eating their bodies. It is known as a high honor. If you chose to not eat the body, it is a sign of major disrespect.
A disease that effects the nerve & brain tissue. People in the South Pacific were experiencing an epidemic because they were cannibals. Women & Children were more affected than men because they were served last & primarily ate the nerve tissue of the diseased ancestors.
Biological Anthropologists had to understand the biological part of the disease, the culture practices, and than to understand why the Kuru epidemic was appearing in the way that it did.
Desirable good in Europe. These plantations became a major industry in Southern USA. The plantations were grown by slaves & the life span of those slaves were incredibly short. The sugar cane was very cheap and the investment in slaves were so low that economics were sustainable.
Inexpensive way to preserve protein making long distance shipping viable. Salt cod became an important fuel for the growing sugar cane industry in the American plantation systems. Fuels early exploration and colonization & fuels the brutal slavery & sugar cane plantations
Neapolitan put a huge call out for food preservation for his soldiers. Canning became prevalent during the World Wars as armies needed to feed troops over vast amount of lands.
Try to eat food that is produced close to where it is consumed. To avoid participation in the extensive food system & to strengthen local food systems.
Relies on organizations to certify that goods are produced in accordance with a variety of labor & wage practices that protect food producers from negative effects of the world food system.
Example: protect farmers from unfair labor practices
Food Insecurity in America
Widespread problem. Faced by the working poor, not just the unemployed. Problem of over & under nutrition.
Mexican Worker's Eating Experiences
Did not have time to eat. Labor practices influence eating habits.
Established in 1996. Direct payments were originally meant to wean farmers off traditional subsidies that are triggered during periods of low prices for corn, wheat, soybeans, cotton, rice & other crops
High Fructose Corn Syrup
Corn syrup to which enzymes have been added to change some of the glucose to fructose, making the product sweeter than regular corn syrup.
"Corn Syrup" Ad
An Ad by corn companies saying corn fructose syrup is just as healthy as regular sugar, if not healthier.
Sold in 1953 before the microwave came
Frozen meals with all traditional parts of an American meal
Suited for specific lifestyle & gender role
Food Desert Responses
1. Walgreen started stocking produce in 2010
2. Communities produce better information for people on how to eat well in low income urban neighborhoods
3. Farm to Folk delivers fresh fruits and vegetables to church groups in areas without grocery stores
Pima Population Health
An indigenous group living in Arizona & Mexico. The water supply was cut so the Pima people had to rely on water from the river. This caused a famine. They were relying on sugar and white flour from the government.
Pima integrated unhealthy eating habits: diabetes & obesity VS people in Mexico who have maintained a healthy lifestyle
Famine in Sahel
1970's famine broke out in the region between the Sahara desert & the grass lands of mid-Africa. There was enough food available for most of the countries in Sahel and enough food to feed the population but yet people were dying.
It was not a lack of food but it was the inability for some people to access food which is caused by social and political processes.
Solutions to Famine in the Sahel Film
It is not just about keeping people fed, but about changing the economic system to better support the population
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
Welfare Queens - women of color who would use food stamps but also were driving fancy cars and had luxurious clothes & purses.
Stereotype: lazy, not working, African Americans
Reality: parents with minimum wage jobs, kids benefit the most
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