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Biology Exam 3 Study Guide
Terms in this set (50)
The cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones is define as
The cellular process of synthesizing (making) large molecules from smaller ones is defined as
Which of the following is true for anabolic pathways
They consume energy to build polymers from monomers
Which of the following is a statement of the first law of thermodynamics?
Energy cannot be created or destroyed
Energy transformations are always associated with an increase in the
entropy of the universe
Which of the following tend(s) to release energy?
Which of the following is true for all exergonic reactions?
The reaction goes only in a forward direction: all reactants will be converted to products, but no products will be converted to reactants
A chemical reaction that has a positive Delta G is best described as
Which of the following describes the role that ATP plays in cellular metabolism
ATP serves as an energy shuttle in the cell, coupling exergonic and endergonic reactions
Which of the following statements concerning catabolic pathways is true?
They provide energy that can be used to drive cellular work.
Which of the following statements about enzyme-catalyzed reactions is true?
The rate of the reaction is greater than when the same reaction occurs in the absence of an enzyme
In most exergonic reactions, the reactants capable of interacting to form products typically must first overcome a thermodynamic barrier known as the
activation energy of the reaction
which of the following statements regarding enzymes is true?
Enzymes increase the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy barrier
The active site of an enzyme is the region that
binds substrates for the enzyme
The induced fit model of enzyme activity suggests which of the following?
The binding of substrate changes the conformation of the active site to bind substrate
Increasing the substrate concentration in an enzymatic reaction could overcome which of the following?
A noncompetitive inhibitor decreases the rate of an enzymatic reaction by
changing the shape of the enzyme active site
The mechanism by which the end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an earlier step in the pathway is most precisely described as
Cooperativity is a form of allosteric activation in which
Binding of a substrate molecule to one active site in a multisubunit enzyme stimulates the binding of substrate molecules to the active sites of other subunits
An example used in class to describe cooper activity was
Hemoglobin binding oxygen
An example used in class to describe competitive inhibition was
Hemoglobin binding CO2
In an oxidation-reduction reaction, the reducing agent
loses electrons and loses potential energy
As a result of an oxidation-reduction reaction the oxidizing agent
Gains electrons and gains potential energy
The complete reactions of cellular respiration in the presence of oxygen (C6H12O6 + 6 O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy) result in which of the following (hint: what is the final electron acceptor, what does it mean to gain electrons
Oxidation of C6H12O6 and reduction of O2
Which of the following statements about NAD+ is true
NAD+ is reduced to NADH during glycolysis
In animal cells, glycolysis occurs in
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?
accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
The complete oxidation of glucose in aerobic respiration occurs through which of the following sequence of metabolic reactions?
Glucose -> glycolysis -> pyruvate oxidation -> citric acid cycle -> electron transport chain
Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen (O2) is present or absent?
in addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis?
NADH and pyruvate
Glycolysis results in a NET production of which of the following from each molecule of glucose?
2 NADH, 2 Pyruvate, and 2 ATP
How many carbon atoms are fed into the citric acid cycle after the oxidation of one molecule of pyruvate?
Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located
inner mitochondrial membrane
in the complete reactions of aerobic respiration, the energy for the majority of ATP synthesis is provided by
a proton gradient across a membrane
During aerobic respiration, which of the following directly donates electrons to the electron transport chain at the lowest energy level? (hint: which pumps more H+ per molecule)
During aerobic respiration, which of the following directly donates electrons to the electron transport chain at the highest energy level?
The primary role of oxygen unicellular respiration is to
serveas an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen, forming water
Where in the mitochondria is the enzyme ATP synthase localized?
Energy released by the electron transport chain is used to pump H+ into which location in the eukaryotic cells?
Mitochondrial inter-membrane space
When hydrogen ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane and into the inter membrane space the result is?
the creation of a proton motive force.
approximately how many molecules of ATP are produced from the complete oxidation of two molecules of glucose (C6H12O6) in aerobic cellular respiration
What is proton-motive force?
the force provided by a transmembrane hydrogen ion gradient
What carbon sources can yeast cells metabolize to make ATP from ADP under anaerobic conditions
yeast cells with defective mitochondria are incapable of cellular respiration. these cells will be able to row by catabolizing which of the following carbon sources for energy?
which of the following occur(s) in the cytosol of the eukaryotic cell?
glycolysis and fermentation
which of the following occur(s) in mitochondria?
oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle
One primary function of both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation is to
oxidize NADH to NAD+
which kind of metabolic poison would most directly interfere with glycolysis
an agent that closely mimics the structure of glucose but is not metabolized
inside an active mitochondrion, most electrons follow which pathway?
citric acid cycle -> NADH -> electron transport chain -> oxygen
In alcohol fermentation, NAD+ is regenerate from NADH by
reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol
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