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Immunology Flash Cards
Terms in this set (78)
What is non-specific immunity?
General mechanisms that defend the body against foreign invaders
Name 5 mechanisms of non-specific immunity.
1) Anatomical barriers 2) Inflammation 3) Complement system 4) NK cells 5) Interferons
How does skin work as an anatomical barrier?
Impenetrable by most microorganisms/resistant to foreign materials.
What is located in the respiratory tract that acts as an anatomical barrier?
How does normal flora act as non-specific immunity?
Name 4 body systems that rely on mucus membranes for non-specific immunity.
1) Respiratory 2) Digestive 3) Urinary, 4) Reproductive
Sweat, saliva, and tears all contain what that disrupt the cell walls of bacteria?
What cells are the first responders to injury or evasion and are responsible for phagocytosis?
After phagocytizing foreign invaders, how to macrophages continue to help the immune system?
Incorporate parts of the pathogen onto their surface and present it to other lymphocytes.
What is the most common WBC in the blood?
Name two ways that inflammation helps fight infection.
1) Damages tissues release chemicals that attract WBCs
2) WBCs ingest bacteria an foreign material
What is the complement system?
Enzymes (proteins) in plasma that are activated by the binding of antibodies to antigens.
What are interferons?
Interferons are proteins released by virus-infected cells that stimulate adjacent cells to inhibit virus replication.
What advantage does specific immunity have over non-specific?
- Ability to recognize and remember specific pathogens.
- Can mount a stronger attack each time the pathogen is encountered.
What are the two types of specific immunity?
1) Cell Mediated Immunity: Function of T Lymphocytes (T cells).
2) Humoral Immunity: Function of B Lymphocytes (B cells).
What cells carry out the duties of the specific immune system?
What do lymphocytes have on their surfaces that drive specific immunity?
Name two types of lymphocytes and where they mature.
1) B Lymphocytes - Mature in Bone Marrow
2) T Lymphocytes - Mature in Thymus
What do lymphoid tissues contain?
Contain mature and circulating lymphocytes.
Name 4 lymphoid tissues.
2) Lymph nodes
What does GALT stand for?
Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissues.
Give two examples of GALT.
2) Peyer's patches
What is the function of T-cells?
Carries out cell mediated immunity.
Where does cell mediated immunity occur?
What are the T-cells of cell-mediated immunity?
Cytotoxic, helper, memory, suppression.
What is the role of cytotoxic T-cells?
Bind to affected cells with the matching antigen and kill the cell.
Which cells secrete cytokines to attract other immune cells to the site of infection?
What cells are multiple copies of the original activated T-cells?
Memory T cells.
What type of specific immunity happens in the blood and lymph?
What are the immune cells of humoral immunity?
How are microorganisms identified by the body?
Antigen on surface.
How are B-cells activated?
Antigens circulating through lymphoid tissues bind to the matching antigen receptor on the specific B-cells
Activated B-cells divide into what 2 types of cells?
Memory B-cells and plasma cells.
Which cells are multiple copies of the original activated B-cell and remain in reserve after an initial infection?
What is the function of plasma cells?
To produce proteins called antibodies.
What is another name for antibodies?
Antibodies are what type of molecule?
How do antibodies work?
By binding to the matching antigen on microorganisms, toxins or other foreign chemicals.
Name two ways antibodies block infection and eliminate extracellular microbes?
What is meant by neutralization?
Antibodies attach directly to a microorganism or toxin so that it cannot infect or damage body cells.
What is happening when antibodies connect microorganisms into a clump that can be
phagocytosed by WBC's?
What class of immunoglobulin is produced slowly on first exposure to a new antigen, but makes up 75% of the total antibodies in blood and lymph?
What is the principal immunoglobulin associated with mucosal immunity?
What is the function of IgD?
When does the antibody IgM appear?
Upon first exposure to new antigen - early in the course of infection
If a dog has allergies or a parasitic infection, what type of antibody is likely to be elevated?
What antibodies are measured in routine blood titers?
What is a common vaccine given to stimulate mucosal immunity, where is it given and what antibodies does it stimulate?
Bordetella, given intranasal, stimulated IgA antibodies
The presence of what immunoglobulin indicates an animal is currently infected?
What do colostrum, transplacental immunity, plasma transfusions, and humoral immunity have in common?
All utilize antibodies.
Define passive immunity.
Produced by the introduction of pre-formed antibodies into the body.
What type of immunity are foals born without that makes colostrum so important?
Colostrum must be ingested within the first 12-24 hours. Why?
The intestines will only absorb the antibodies in this timeframe.
What are two ways to stimulate active immunity?
2) Natural Exposure
Antibody titers help measure whether a vaccine stimulated which immune response?
After vaccination would you expect to see antibody titers increase or decrease for the antigen vaccinated against?
What is immunodeficiency?
Inadequate immune function.
Name 5 causes of immunodeficiency
2) Congential defects
3) Old age
4) Immunosuppressive drugs
What is combined immunodeficiency disease of Arabian horses?
Genetic defect that causes the abnormal development of cellular and/or humoral immunity.
What is another type of passive immunity that can be administered to a foal that did not receive colostrum?
What type of immunity is produced by the introduction of an antigen into the body?
What are the types of immunity that can be acquired from the mother?
How does FIV (feline immunodeficiency virus) harm infected cats?
Directly attacks the immune system (T-helper cells).
What do the viruses feline leukopenia virus, feline panleukopenia, and canine parvo virus
have in common?
They all suppress the development of WBC's.
What is the term used for an overactive immune response?
Which type of hypersensitivity is immediate and can cause anaphylaxis?
Hypersensitivity type II is what type of sensitivity?
- IgG is formed to bind to antigens on the bodies own cells
What is meant by the term "autoimmune disease"?
Immune attack against an animal's own tissues.
What type of hypersensitivity is characterized by immune complexes being deposited in the
What is an immune complex?
An antibody / antigen cluster.
Contact dermatitis is an example of what type of hypersensitivity?
Type IV, delayed type.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a type of autoimmune disease that attacks what body tissue?
Myasthenia gravis is what type of disease effecting nerve/muscle junctions?
What is the purpose of suppression immunotherapy? Name 3.
1) Short-term therapy of hypersensitivities
2) Treatment for autoimmune disease
3) Prevent organ transplant rejection
Why would it not be a good idea to treat FeLV with suppression immunotherapy?
The disease already suppresses WBC production, leaving cats vulnerable.
What is the danger of using immunosuppressant drugs?
Lowers resistance to infection.
What class of drug is commonly used for immune suppression?
What is a common corticosteroid?
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