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25 terms

Micro 7.3

STUDY
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Leukocidins, Hemolysins & Coagulase are examples of...?
exoenzymes.
Leukocidins
excoenzyme formed by many Staphylococci & Streptococci that kill white blood cells.
Hemolysins
exoenzyme found in Clostridium that kills red blood cells (less O2)
Coagulase
exoenzyme formed by Staphylococcus aureus that clots blood.
Why are staphy infections hard to treat?
b/c of the exoenzyme Coagulase.
cytocidal
kills cells.
noncytocidal
damages cells but does not "kill" cells.
Infection is often followed by_______?
disease
Disease can be due to _______ & _______.
direct cell damage, toxins
Most bacteria cause disease by forming ______.
toxins
Exotoxins are good _____; cause strong immune response (anitbody production)
antigens
Toxoids
made by exotoxins. They are not toxic and are used as vaccines against the real toxin. Ex: tetanus toxoid
Endotoxins
lipid molecules called Lipid A
First line defense
skin and mucus membranes.
Second line defense
phagocytes, fever, and others.(inside body)
Third line defense
immunity; B & T cells, antibodies.
Antibodies (B & T cells) are found where?
blood, lymph, tissue fluid, mucus
non-specific defenses
first and second line defenses. Work against all types of microbes.
Specific defenses
third line defense, immunity. Targeted at a specific microbes. Ex: Hep B vaccine
Mucus membranes ____microbes. They are rich in ______ & ______.
trap, phagocytes, antibodies.
Macrophages, neutrophils & eosinophils are examples of what?
Phagocytes.
Inflammation
local response; distress signal. Ex: redness, pain, heat, swelling.
fever
systemic response, usually beneficial. slows the growth of MO & increases production of disease fighting T-cells.
Interleukin-1
chemical released by phagocytes that resets the body's thermostat higher.
What are part of gram negative cell walls and are not toxic until freed by disintegration of cell??
Endotoxins