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Leukocidins, Hemolysins & Coagulase are examples of...?



excoenzyme formed by many Staphylococci & Streptococci that kill white blood cells.


exoenzyme found in Clostridium that kills red blood cells (less O2)


exoenzyme formed by Staphylococcus aureus that clots blood.

Why are staphy infections hard to treat?

b/c of the exoenzyme Coagulase.


kills cells.


damages cells but does not "kill" cells.

Infection is often followed by_______?


Disease can be due to _______ & _______.

direct cell damage, toxins

Most bacteria cause disease by forming ______.


Exotoxins are good _____; cause strong immune response (anitbody production)



made by exotoxins. They are not toxic and are used as vaccines against the real toxin. Ex: tetanus toxoid


lipid molecules called Lipid A

First line defense

skin and mucus membranes.

Second line defense

phagocytes, fever, and others.(inside body)

Third line defense

immunity; B & T cells, antibodies.

Antibodies (B & T cells) are found where?

blood, lymph, tissue fluid, mucus

non-specific defenses

first and second line defenses. Work against all types of microbes.

Specific defenses

third line defense, immunity. Targeted at a specific microbes. Ex: Hep B vaccine

Mucus membranes ____microbes. They are rich in ______ & ______.

trap, phagocytes, antibodies.

Macrophages, neutrophils & eosinophils are examples of what?



local response; distress signal. Ex: redness, pain, heat, swelling.


systemic response, usually beneficial. slows the growth of MO & increases production of disease fighting T-cells.


chemical released by phagocytes that resets the body's thermostat higher.

What are part of gram negative cell walls and are not toxic until freed by disintegration of cell??


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