Biology Cells Test
Terms in this set (28)
Explain the correct procedure of using a microscope:
To set the lowest power lens into position turn the revolving turret. Then, place the microscope slide on the stage and use the stage clips to fasten it. To focus the image on the microscope slide, adjust the position of the stage using the focus know so that the stage is closer to the eyepiece lens. Also, adjust the condenser and the light intensity to increase the amount of light reflected. Move the objective lens to zoom into the image.
Which part of the microscope is used to focus:
Course and Fine adjustments
What are the functions of the cell membrane: Protect the cell
prevent certain materials from entering and leaving the cell-control the movement of molecules in and out of the cell, and maintain homeostasis.
Describe the components that make up the phospholipid:
Phospholipids are composed of a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail.
Where is the cytoplasm located in the cell: The cytoplasm is located within the cell
and takes up most of the space within a cell, holding all of the organelles, providing structure and facilitating movement within the cell
List the concepts of the cell theory:
All cells come from existing cells cells are the basic unit of life, All living things are made of cells
Write the functions of the following organelles: ribosomes lysosomes, mitochondria, large vacuole, centrioles, and chloroplast:
Ribosomes produce proteins Lysosomes break down nutrients and remove them as waste, Mitochondria goes through the process cellular respiration that produces ATP (energy), Large vacuole is used in plant cells to store water, supporting the cell, centrioles are used in the reproduction process of the cell, cell division, and the chloroplast converts light energy taken in by the cell into an energy form the plant is able to use (sugars), which is other wise known as photosynthesis
Describe the structure of the following organelles rough endoplasmic reticulum, chloroplast, nucleus, and mitochondria:
The rough endoplasmic reticulum has flat sacs and translocon pores which is the location where ribosomes attach itself. The proteins that the ribosomes make are transported to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and sent off to the golgi apparatus. The chloroplast has an oval shape, double membranes and is filled with chlorophyll, it also contains a gel like fluid called stroma, and a thylakoid system. The nucleus structure includes a nuclear envelope, chromatin, nuclear pores and a nucleoplasm. The mitochondria contains its own set of DNA, a membrane, ribosomes and a matrix.
What is the smallest simplest collection of mater that exhibits traits of life:
Describe the structure of a prokaryote:
Prokaryotes contain pili which allows it to attach to surfaces flagellum which moves the cell, dna, a cell wall, a cell membrane and ribosomes
Compare phagocytosis and pinocytosis:
Phagocytosis occurs when a small vesicle engulfs around a solid particle while Pinocytosis occurs when a small vesicle engulfs a liquid particle. They both are forms of endocytosis, which occurs when cells surround particles in order to take them in the cell.
How does a paramecium attempt to maintain cellular homeostasis:
The paramecium contains an organelle called the contractile vacuole which is attached to the membrane of the paramecium. The contractile vacuole collects excess water taken in by the cell membrane and removes it from the cell entirely. This process of regulating how much particles move in and out of the cell maintains homeostasis.
Which organelles are found in both animal and plant cells:
Mitochondria Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, Nucleus, Nucleolus, Cell Membrane, Cytoplasm, Centrioles, Cytoskeleton
What is the difference in concentration gradients for active and passive transport:
The concentration gradient for passive transport is from high to low (which doesn't require energy) while the concentration gradient for active transport is low to high (which requires energy)
Place the following words from smallest to largest order: cell molecule, tissue, organ, and organism, organ system, mitochondria
Molecule, Mitochondria, Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ system, Organism
What does it mean to be in equilibrium:
To be in equilibrium is to be in a balanced state. The cell is in equilibrium when the movement of molecules in and out of the cell is equal.
What is selective permeable membrane:
Selective permeable membrane is a membrane that controls what molecules go in and out of the cell and regulates what moves through the membrane. A selective permeable membrane is the cell membrane
Compare active transport passive transport, simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion and osmosis:
The transport that requires no energy is known as passive transport, and the transport that does require energy is know as active transport. The three different types of passive transport are simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis. Simple diffusion where molecules pass through the cell membrane in and out of the cell, while on the other hand facilitated diffusion is where a internal membrane protein is needed to move molecules through the cell membrane in and out of the cell
Which components of the cell membrane are responsible for cell recognition: Draw the structure:
Which structures in the cell membrane are made of proteins:
Glycoprotein Peripheral protein, Intergal Protein
In using a microscope how do you calculate the total magnification:
Total Magnification = (magnification of the eyepiece) * (the multiplication of the lens)
Explain hypertonic isotonic, and hypotonic solution
A cell in a hypertonic solution will have more water than solute within itself, while its surroundings will have more solute than water, and therefore the water rushes out of the cell into its surroundings, causing the cell to shrink. A cell in a hypotonic solution will have more solute than water within itself, while its surroundings will have more water than solute, and therefore the water rushes into the cell from the surroundings, causing the cell to swell and burst. A cell that has an isotonic solution is a normal cell, where the components of the cell and its surroundings are moving in equilibrium.
Why is energy needed for active transport:
Energy is needed for active transport because the membrane is pumping particles against the concentration gradient which requires ATP
What is the function of the phospholipid:
Compose the cell membrane act as a long term energy storage, participate in the transport of molecules through the cell membrane
Describe what happens to a plant cell during plasmolysis:
During plasmolysis water leaves the cell the cell will shrink and die
Describe what happens to an animal cell when it crenates:
The cell is exposed to a hypertonic solution which causes the cell to shrink and die
Describe and Explain the structure of the cell membrane and the components found inside it:
The cell membrane is composed of proteins and lipids which gives it flexibility. Components of the cell membrane are the phospholipid bilayer, the glycoproteins, integral and peripheral proteins, and cholesterol
Describe how an animal cell removes waste from inside the cell. What is the name of this process:
A cell pushes a vesicle that contains the waste towards the cell membrane fusing it with the cell membrane. Then the vesicle membrane opens and releases the waste. This process is called Exocytosis.