51 terms

World at risk - Year 12 Geography

STUDY
PLAY
Vulnerability
The extent of impact that a hazard can have on a person and their ability to cope with it.
Context Hazard
Widespread (global) threat due to environmental factors. e.g climate change
Water Vapour
The Greenhouse Gas with the highest concentration in our atmosphere.
Geophysical hazard
A hazard formed by tectonic/geological processes such as earthquakes and volcanoes
Hydro-meteorological hazard
A hazard formed by the atmosphere (storms, droughts etc.) and/or by water (floods)
Hazard
An event that has the potential to threaten both life and property
Disaster
A hazard becoming reality in an event that causes death and damage to goods, property and the environment.
Risk
The likelihood that a person will be impacted by a hazard.
Disaster Risk Equation
risk = (hazard x vulnerability)/capacity to cope
Mega Disaster
A disaster that has an unusually large impact on people and property and it will effect more than one country. e.g. 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami
Disaster hotspot
vulnerable places at risk from two or more hazards
3Ps
1. prediction e.g. technology; 2. prevention(protection) i.e. preventing impacts; 3. preparedness e.g. earthquake drills
Actual Financial Cost
The amount of money lost. Greater in richer countries.
Relative Financial Cost
The amount of money lost relative to how much money people have to start it. Greater in poorer countries.
Fatalistic Approach
(Why do people choose to live near hazards) Think that hazards are 'gods will', lack of alternatives, losses are accepted to be inevitable, people remain where they are.
Acceptance Approach
(Why do people choose to live near hazards) Benefits outweigh the costs, e.g. tourism, people accept the risk of hazards but try to protect themselves.
Adaptation Approach
(Why do people choose to live near hazards) People see that they can protect themselves and survive, the use of 3Ps.
Earthquake
A sudden movement of plate boundaries- often caused by a slip fault, this creates seismic shock wavess.
Transform movement
Occurs on conservative Plate boundaries - this is a side by side movement of the plates
Convergent movement
Occurs on Collisional and Destructive plate boundaries - this is when two plates move towards each other
Divergent movements
occurs on constructive plate boundaries (sea) / Rift valley (land) - this is when tow plates are moving apart from each other.
Richter Scale
1-10 scale for earthquakes, measured by amplitude of waves, release of energy. Most common, scientific.
Mercalli Scale
1-10 scale for earthquakes, measures damage through observation. Used in hindsight.
Moment Magnitude
The most scientific and accurate scale to measure earthquakes, used by scientist.
Hurricane
A large low-pressure system, characterized by high winds and heavy rain - minimum on 119km/h. Is named differently in other parts of the world. Typhoon in the Pacific, Cyclone in the Indian Ocean.
Eye wall
The strongest winds of a hurricane surrounding the eye.
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
Category 1-5 scale, measures magnitude of hurricanes. Categorized by wind speed: C1: 119km/h; C5:249km/h
Conditions for hurricanes to happen
Warm ocean surface temperature (28C), low pressure system, coriolis force, conventional rain.
Drought
Drought is a prolonged period of time with less than usual water precipitation.
Palmer Drought Severity Index (PPSI)
Measurement of dryness based on recent precipitation and temperature (4: severe drought/0: normal/-4: very wet, potential flood)
Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI)
Scale 0-8, measures magnitude of each volcano (not each eruption).
El Nino Southern Oscillation
Irregular flow of warm water from the eastern Pacific Ocean to the western coast of South America, accompanied by the reversal of atmospheric pressure and direction of trade wind between the two regions.
Walker Cell
atmospheric air circulation in the Pacific which reverses during El Nino conditions.
Ozone Layer
A layer of the gas O3 in our atmosphere it blocks harmful UV radiation from the sun which can cause skin cancer.
Greenhouse gases
Any gas in our atmosphere that can hold heat inside them. They are naturally occurred.
Milankovitch Cycles
Earth encounters more variation in the energy that it receives from the sun when earth is orbiting is elongated than it does when earth orbit is more circular.
Greenhouse effect
the warming of the atmosphere as some of its gases asorb the heat given out by the earth
Albedo
This is the amount of solar radiation reflected by the Earth's surfaces. Ice and snow reflect most.
Mitigation
refers to the policies which are meant to delay, reduce or prevent climate changes - cutting C02 emissions by instituting congestion charges or carbon sinks.
Adaption
refers to the policies which are designed to reduce the existing impacts of climate change - flood protection and coastal erosion.
Tipping point
This refers to a point beyond which the Earth cannot recover from the effects of carbon emissions, even with drastic action.
Ice cores
The ratio of oxygen isotopes in ice indicates the temperature at the time ice was deposited as snow. Also, air bubbles trapped in the ice can be analysed to measure carbon dioxide and methane concentrations
Fossil pollen
pollen grains are often found preserved in sediment cores from ponds, lakes and oceans. They provide information on the type of plants that grew nearby when the sediments were formed.
Tree ring width
depends on the soil moisture, temperature and other growing conditions. Annual rings of trees in temperate forests can be used to reconstruct past climates.
Ocean sediment cores
contain primitive shelled animals (foraminifera) whose abundance in the surface layers of the ocean depends on surface water temperature and other conditions.
Glaciers
Variations in the past size of glaciers can be inferred from the location of moraines (rocks and debris deposited by glaciers) and buried soils, and in the presence of glacial features in the landscape.
Instrumental measurements and written or oral records
in New Zealand, quantitative records of temperature and other meteorological records are available only for the past 150 years. Such records must be analysed carefully, to identify the influence of any non-climate factors (such as changes in observing site or method, or encroaching urban development).
Kyoto Protocol
This is a global agreement setting targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and 175 countries have signed up.
Carbon offsetting
Allows companies to pollute at cost (depends on proportion of pollution produced) which encourage companies to change ways of production with less pollution
Certified Carbon Offsetting
international exchanges aimed at cutting overall emission, companies and countries are given different targets (allow pollution to certain amounts). Also, trade allowed between countries
Voluntary Carbon Offsetting
payments/projects which offset carbon emissions with equivalent CO2 savings
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