Another popular foreign affairs pundit during the 1940s and 1950s was Walter Winchell.
What made Walter Winchell unique was that he was primarily a gossip columnist.
Originally a vaudeville performer, Winchell would eventually cover the vaudeville beat as a journalist
Would transition from industry magazines to newspapers, most notably the Hearst owned New York Mirror in 1929
In syndication, Winchell's column becomes most-read column in America. His column appeared in over 2,000 newspapers
Had power to shape trends, make or break careers
Labeled a "journalistic entertainer" by Ritchie, Winchell would often appear in movies and musical revues
Winchell's popularity would increase when he transitioned to radio, where he would eventually be land on NBC. He was on radio from 1930-1959 and TV from 1952-1954.
Sought out by FDR to support policies, Winchell would be become champion of New Deal, anti-Fascism
Turned increasingly conservative later in career, alienating audiences with his support for McCarthyism His show does not translate well to TV, and Winchell was unable to keep up with changing media landscape, though he was narrator for popular TV show "The Untouchables"
This trend includes many kinds of media entities under one massive corporate roof - newspapers, magazines, broadcasting, cable, movie studios, books, internet providers, phone service providers, and in some cases even theme parks and sports teams.
This has made entities that were once independent enterprises - such as the original big three TV networks (NBC, CBS, ABC) - into units within larger and more vast enterprises, with the news operations themselves a much smaller piece, proportionally, of that big conglomerate pie.
__________________ is emblematic of the move toward conglomeration.
He started in the news business with a family paper in Australia, acquired key newspaper and broadcast properties in the United Kingdom, and then moved into the United States media landscape with tabloids and later even the most establishment of newspapers, the Wall Street Journal.
His media empire - under the News Corporation and 21st Century Fox - is global, with hundreds of newspapers and TV channels around the world, plus the Fox television network, the Fox News Channel on Cable, and the movie studios of 20th Century Fox.
__________________ conservative political bent, which manifested itself in a variety of ways over the years, contributed to debate about whether his ownership would affect news coverage in the Wall Street Journal and National Geographic
After a series of scandals, including a phone hacking scandal involving his British tabloid End of the World, News Corp split into two companies, 21st Century Fox (broadcasting) and News Corp (publishing and Australian broadcasting) in 2012
During the Penny Press era, as evolving newspapers reached new, larger audiences, we saw the rise of concerns as evidenced in the "Moral War" against James Gordon Bennett's New York Herald.
Later in the 19th century, as the circulation of individual newspapers soared above a million, there were concerns about "yellow journalism" using sensationalism to attract an ever-larger audience, including recent immigrants.
In the 20th century, the rise of mass media - including the emerging platforms of newsreels, radio and television - brought new concerns about the possibilities of a distorted view of reality, manipulation of public opinion, and overt propaganda. The ultimate fear was that the democratic process itself would be derailed in the process.
One reaction to this was the rise of studies of "media effects" leading to a variety of theories about the way media function in society.
Cognitive effects: short-term learning of information
Amount of learning depends on motivation of individual
Research shows that people learn more from people with whom the identify and pay more attention to
Attitudinal effects: People can develop feelings about a product, individual, idea, etc. on the basis of media content. Easier to get people to form a NEW opinion rather than to CHANGE an opinion.
Psychological effects: Media content can inspire fear, joy, revulsion,happiness, amusement,etc.
Behavioral effects: Spurring action such as clipping a coupon, buying a product, making a phone call, voting, etc. Can include imitative behavior, such as dressing a certain way