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Chapter 1 The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography Chapter One Key Terms
Terms in this set (45)
The science of making maps.
The spread of something over a given area.
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group.
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group's distinct tradition
The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area.
The process or spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface.
Maps where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon, such as a population.
A nineteenth- and early twentieth century approach to the study of geography which argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities.
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.
formal region (or uniform or homogeneous region)
An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics.
friction of distance
A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places.
functional (or nodal) region
An area organized around a node or focal point.
Geographic information system (GIS)
A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
The region from which innovative ideas originate.
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places.
International Date Line
An arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day.
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator (0°).
The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian (0°).
A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it, also called a projection
A true conformal cylindrical map projection, the Mercator projection is particularly useful for navigation because it maintains accurate direction. Mercator projections are famous for their distortion in area that makes landmasses at the poles appear oversized.
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
The meridian, designated as 0 degrees longitude, that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.
A north-south line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map, also simply a flat map.
Alexandrian astronomer who proposed a geocentric (earth centered) system of astronomy that was undisputed until Copernicus (2nd century AD); originated grid system of the earth
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each.
Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface.
The physical character of a place
The location of a place relative to other places.
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems.
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
The name given to a portion of Earth's' surface.
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.
vernacular region (or perceptual region)
An area that people believe to exist as part of their cultural identity.
The imaginary great circle around the earth's surface, equidistant from the poles and perpendicular to the earth's axis of rotation. It divides the earth into the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere.
Any of the 24 longitudinal divisions of the earth's surface in which a standard time is kept, the primary division being that bisected by the Greenwich meridian. Each zone is 15° of longitude in width, with local variations, and observes a clock time one hour earlier than the zone immediately to the east.
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What are Ravenstein's laws for the distance that migrants typically move?
What geographers tend to see when looking at a global scale
2 countries that have "sent" the most immigrants to the U.S
Where is modern day (contemporary) hunting and gathering located?