Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
A level History AQA : Tsarist Russia: Autocracy in 1855 Ch.1
AQA History Tsarist and Communist Russia, Ch.1
Terms in this set (85)
How could you describe Russian society in 1855?
an autocratic empire
What Titles did the Tsar attain?
Tsar at the head, took title ' Emperor and Autocrat of all Russia'
What was the Tsars link to religion?
Known to be an unlimited monarch; God himself ordains that all must bow to his supreme power, 'not only out of fear, but out of conscience.'• Regarded as the embodiment of God on Earth
having no limits on a ruler's power, absolute power
What other sector of society did the Tsar own in 1855?
Tsar is also the leader of Russian Orthodox Church, mostly Christian
What was the Patiarch of Moscow?
Worked closely with the Tsar, provided spiritual guidance, while the over procurator( highest church official) of the Holy Synod, (group of bishops) created in 1721, was a government minister appointed by the Tsar to run Church affairs
What were the terms of the Tsars connection to the Church?
So Church and State were intertwined, as bishops at the head of the church were subject to tsarist control over appointments, religious education, finances of the church and issues of administration
Who advised and worked alongside the Tsar?
Main advisory bodies were the Imperial council or Chancellery, a body of 35-60 nobles specially picked by the tsar to advise him personally and provide their 'expert; opinion.but these were all chosen by the tsar himself and no one could do anything without his approval.
What role was proven useless by 1855 to helping the Tsar?
And the senate, supposed to oversee all the workings of the government but in practice was largely redundant by 1855
What was the main means of retaining control of the wealty in 1855?
Sense of obligation remained strong though and all landowners were expected to keep order on their estates.
Who made up the bureaucracy?
Civil servants made up the bureaucracy were paid officials (noble) selected from a table of ranks that laid down the requirements for office
What was the weakness of this bureaucracy?
This was riddled with corruption and incompetence, but through its orders were passed downwards from the government to the provincial governors and town commandants, • One way operation, no suggestions travelled up the ranks
How many were in the Russian army in 1855?
the world's largest army of around 1.5 million conscripted serfs
How long did a serf serve in the army In 1855?
each forced to serve 25 years and made to live in military colonies
How significant were the army to Russia in 1855?
absorbed around 45 percent of the government's annual spending
How was the army somewhat corrupted in terms of efficiency?
The higher ranks of the military were prestigious posts, reserved for nobles who bought and sold their commissions, but for the lower ranks discipline was harsh and army life was tough
What measures were used to maintain autocracy in 1855?
the country had developed into a police state
Describe the police state repression?
The police state prevented freedom of speech, freedom of the press and travel abroad, • Political meetings and strikes were banned
What was the role of the police?
the police made sure that the censorship exercised by the state and the church was enforced
What were the Third Section a part of?
The secret state security network was run by the 'third section' of the emperor's imperial council
What did the secret state security network do?
Its agents kept a strict surveillance over the population and had unlimited powers to carry out raids, to arrest and imprison or send into exile anyone suspected of anti-tsarist behaviour, • They were greatly feared, and acted on the word of informers
Wear did the path of autocracy and repression come from?
Following the French revolution, Alexander I Tsar from 1801-1825, considered setting up an advisory representative assembly and possibly giving it law making powers, but he never put this into practice,• His brother, Nicolas I,who ruled 1825-55, totally rejected such a thought, • A military uprising against his rule in Dec 1825 encouraged him to follow a path of repression, and he deliberately sought to distance Russia from the west where liberal ideas he most feared were spreading., • Believed in strict autocracy and severe restrictions were imposed on Russia's other nationalities
Were other countries modernising, if so, which ones?
In 1855, Britain, Belgium, France and the states were comprising Germany and were already well advanced industrially
How was the Russian economy backward compared to Britain in 1855?
The Russian economy however remained mostly rural with a ratio of 11:1 village to town dwellers, compared to 2:1 in Britain
What percetage of Russia was illiterate in 1855?
Geographically, why was Russian economy backward?
Russia's economy was backwards because: although the Russian empire was vast, much of its territory was inhospitable (over 2/3 lay north of 50th parallel) comprising Tundra and coniferous forest along with barren countryside, especially to the north and east
In terms of trading, why was Russian economy backward?
Despite Russia being Europe's main exporter of agricultural produce and possessed vast reserves of timber, coal, oil and gold much of its potential metals remained untapped and communications between different parts of the empire were poor
What was the serf based economy?
Landowning aristocracy, the tsarist government and the army were all reliant on the serfs' subservience to their ' owners'
How did the serf based economy allow the Russian economy to become backward?
This inhibited economic development by limiting the forces that drive change, such as wage earners, markets and entrepreneurs.
Why weren't serfs prosperous?
The serfs were poor. Most just about managed to survive on the produce they grew for themselves on the land made available to them by their landlord, • Often suffered starvation in the winter, in bad harvest
Why was the farming technique of the serfs so inefficient?
Their strip farming technique was very inefficient as it wasn't spread out, too little space 3-4 strips per family, • There was little incentive or opportunity for them to develop into wage earners so there was very low productivity
How much of the serfs income wasn't kept for themselves?
1/3 - 2/3 of the income of a serf was paid to landowner and used directly for taxes
Why were serfs massively inferior?
Serfs were classed as property of their owners, rather than citizens of the state
What conditions did being a serf consist of?
Could be bought and sold, • Lived in small communities called 'Mir', • Awful living conditions, near starvation, lived with animals
What was the infant mortality rate in Russia?
50% infant mortality
What was the life expectancy in Russia?
life expectancy in the 40s
How did the landowners see the serfs?
Known as 'sails' wealth of landowners measured by volume of serfs owned
In what ways were serfs the landowner's property?
Had to ask permission to marry, subject to beatings
What were only serfs liable for in 1855?
Liable for conscription into the army
What were the terms of being a privately owned serf?
Obrok, privately owned serf 30% paying rent, • Barshchina, privately owned to provide labour 70% providing labour
Were markets successful to the economy, what did they sell?
No, Markets existed but was all small scale, • Vodka, metal tools and salt were most popular items
Why did the backwardness of the economy lead to money issues?
Self-sufficiency meant that a lot of goods were actually purchased using an exchange, • So money was simply irrelevant in most places and there was no internal market demand
Why did landowners contribute to economic difficulty?
Many had been forced into debt and had to take out mortgages on estates which had previously been owned outright by their families.• Despite their despair they didn't seek alternative ways of making money because money was of little use in Russia's undeveloped economy.• Uninterested in the inefficiency of their work
What kind of roles did the gentry fulfill in society?
The formers consisted of the clergy, nobility, civil and military officials army, naval officers and at the very top, the royal court
What was signidicant about russia in the mid 1800s?
the striking feature of mid nineteenth century Russian society was the absence of any coherent 'middle class' as was becoming increasingly dominant elsewhere in Europe
What was small at this time In society?
There were a small number of professionals, doctors, teachers and lawyers,
What did some of the few skilled citizens become?
some comprised an educated 'intelligentsia'( more educated members of society, writers and philosophers),
How was the government financed?
The government was financed from taxes and dues
What was the most common direct tax?
The main direct tax, paid by all except the merchants, was the poll tax, literally a tax on heads, which had been introduced in 1719 in order to cover te costs of maintain Russia's large army
How did the poll tax fund so much of the governemt?
It was imposed, at the same rate, on every male peasant in the Empire, no matter what his circumstances
what percentage of government funding was from dues and taxes?
What indirect taxes existed?
Indirect taxes on services and goods included tax on salt and even more importantly, vodka
How much of governemnt funding was paid for through indirect taxes, what does this suggest?
30% of ordinary government income by 1855, suggesting that a change was already underway towards a more commercial' source for government revenue
How much imperial finance was provided by the taxes of the peasantry and urban workers?
How did society appear in comparison to the west?
So while Russia was still considered a 'great' power in Europe because of its size and huge army, politically, economically and socially it remained undeveloped and backward in comparison to the west
What was the first phase of the Crimean War
Russians advance and clash with Turks, in Maldavia
When was the Crmiean war
What was the second phase of the crimean war
Destruction of the Turkish fleet, in Sinope nov, 1854
What was the third phase of the crimean war?
allied troops advance into Crimea, in from the Balkans to Varna and then to Eupatoria in crimea
what was the fourth phase of the crimean war?
Russians controlled Sebastopol Allies cut off on land side but Russians defeated at Balaklava (October) and Inkerman (November)
What wa the fifth phase of the crimean war?
Nicholas I died March 1855, new assault. Sebastopol fell September 1855, Russians fired town,
What was the final phase of the crimean war?
Treaty of Paris, March 30th 1956, Black Sea neutralised, no Russian warships in time of peace
Background of the crimean war?
In mid nineteenth century, the empire of the Ottoman Turks stretched from the Middle East across the black sea straits and into the Balkans, • However since the 1820s, the Sultan had struggled to control the Christians in his European dominions and consequently Tsar Nicholas I had seized the opportunity to increase Russian influence in the area by posing as the Protector of Slavs and Christians
When and where did the combat begin?
In June 1853, Nicholas sent a Russian army to Moldovia and Wallachia
What happened in response to June 1853?
This provoked the Turks into declaring war in October, the Russians were the stronger, and triumphantly sank a squadron of the Turkish black sea fleet, which had been at anchor in Sinope Bay on the Black Sea
Why did britain and france get involved In crimea?
This brought the British and French, who were anxious to protect their own trading interests in the area, into the war in defence of Turkey
How did britian attack russian bases?
They sent a joint expeditionary force of more than 60,000 men to the Russian Crimea where they mounted a land and sea attack on the major Russian naval base of Sebastopol
Why was the death toll of crimea made worse?
The war was marred by incompetence on both sides, and the death toll was made worse by an outbreak of cholera
Why did russia;s backwardness at the time prevent their victory?
Russia suffered badly from outdated technology, poor transport and inadequate leadership
Why did the efficiency of the army create more problems in the war?
while the Russian conscript army was larger in number they were badly trained, they lacked flexibility and determination of the smaller French and British units.
Where and when were the russians defeated?
The Russian were defeated at Balaclava in October 1854 and at Inkerman in November 1854
Who was handed command after march 1855?
alexander II son of Nicholas I after he had died
Why were the russians humiliated after crimea ended?
the course of fighting had revealed Russia's military and administrate inadequacies.
what was the result of the crimean war?
Trade had been disrupted, peasant uprisings escalated and the intelligentsia renewed their cries for something to be done to close the gap between Russia and the West
why did the treaty of paris create even more humiliation?
The concluding Treaty of Paris (1856) added the final humiliation by preventing Russian warships from using the Black Sea in times of peace.
summarise the reason for the crimean war breaking out?
Russia was expanding into the Danube region - Romania today. This was under Turkish control.
Summarise why other countries got involved, what happnened?
Therefore, Turkey and Russia went to war in 1853, and the following year Britain and France - fearful of Russian expansion - became involved.
Explain the context of britian and france's fears over crimea?
Britain and France did not like to see Russia pushing down into the Danube region. They feared Russia would continue pushing down, and eventually come into British India through Afghanistan.
why was religion key to the crimean war?
Religious tensions also played a part. Russia made an issue of the fact that the holiest sites in Christianity - Jerusalem, Bethlehem etc - were under Turkish control.
summarise wher the war was fought?
It was fought on the Crimean peninsula, and also on the Black Sea. It was supposed to play out in the Danubian Principalities (Moldavia and Walachia), but successful Turkish military action and political pressure from Britain, France and Austria forced Russia to withdraw.
Where and whn were the 3 main battles?
the battle of the Alma on 20 September 1854, the battle of Balaclava on 24 October, and a major Russian attack at the Inkerman, in November.
what happened after the battle of alma?
the city was besieged by British, French, and later Sardinian troops. The Russians came out in October and November and tried to push the allies back. But these were not decisive, and the siege dragged on until September 1855.
how many were killed after alma?
summarise how the war came to an end?
In September 1855 the Russians evacuated Sevastopol following the storming of the vital Malakhov bastion by French troops. In short, Russia gave in, and there began a move towards peace talks.
summarise what were the outcomes of the war?
The Treaty of Paris was signed on 30 March 1856.• As part of the treaty, the Russian naval base was supposed to have been run down, to reduce Russian power in the Black Sea, but it never happened. Britain and France were soon no longer strong enough to make it happen, and there emerged increasing tensions between them.
Sets with similar terms
AP Euro - Kagan Chapter 22 The Age of Nation-States
French and Russian Revolutions
Chapter 25 AP EURO Vocab
World History Final (R.I.P.)
Sets found in the same folder
A Level History AQA: Tsarist Russia: Russification…
A level History AQA: Tsarist Russia: Alexander II,…
A Level History: AQA: Tsarist Russia: Alexander II…
A Level History AQA: Tsarist Russia: Opposition Ch…
Other sets by this creator
Bodies and Beauty L1 and Reading- What is Beauty
Philosophy of Time L3 and Reading- Tensed and Tens…
Philosophy of Time L2 and Reading- Eternalism and…
Political Science: Post Modernism
Which of the following best explains why Germans and Italians gave up their civil liberties and embraced totalitarianism? A.They believed a variety of political parties would stimulate their economy. B.They were attracted by the idea of running their own businesses. C.They supported fascist leaders who promised relief from economic hardships. D.They feared that their economic prosperity would vanish if they did not.
Briefly explain its connection to the Muslim world between 600 and 1250. 3.Islam
Which of the three natural features that served as boundaries in ancient Egypt was most important to Egypt’s history? Explain.
What effects did imperialism have on the economic life of the lands and people colonized by the European imperialists?
Other Quizlet sets
kin 4512 module 15
Theorist - Piaget