Among the microorganisms, various genomes can include
All of the choices are correct (chromosomes, plasmids, mitochondrial DNA, chloroplast DNA)
RNA molecules differ from DNA molecules because only RNA
All of the choices are correct (has ribose, has, uracil, is typically one strand of nucleotides, does not have thymine)
The use of an organism's biochemical processes to create a product is
A. genetic engineering
The deliberate removal of genetic material from one organism and combining it with the genetic material of another organism is a specific technique called
Labeled, known, short stretches of DNA used to detect a specific sequence of nucleotides in a mixture are
Analysis of DNA fragments in gel electrophoresis involves
All of the choices are correct (larger fragments move slowly and remain closer to the wells, DNA has an overall negative charge and moves to the positive pole, DNA fragments are stained to see them, an electric current through the gel causes DNA fragments to migrate)
Gene probes can be labeled for detection with
All of the choices are correct (enzymes, fluorescent dyes, radioisotopes)
When patient tissues are transfected with viruses carrying a needed, normal human gene, the technique is called
Both DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reactions require special __________ to initiate synthesis of a new DNA molecule.
The toxin of Staphylococcus aureus strains that causes blisters and desquamation of skin in scalded skin syndrome is
This pathogen is the most common cause of neonatal pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis in the United States:
This organism is associated with commonly causing urinary tract infections in sexually active young adult and adolescent females:
The most common site where carriers of Staphylococcus aureus carry this pathogen is
A. all over the skin.
The most common site where carriers of Staphylococcus aureus carry this pathogen is
anterior nares (nostrils)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is
All of the choices are correct (the cause of ophthalmia neonatorum, the cause of gonorrhea, called the gonococcus, virulent due to pili, and a protease that inactivates IgA)
All of the following pertain to Neisseria meningitidis except
it is a common cause of bacterial pneumonia
The instillation of antibiotics in newborn's eyes will prevent ophthalmia neonatorum in newborns. This disease is caused by
All of the following are correct about Staphylococcus aureus except
the body's most powerful defense against it lies in the T-cell response
The term that refers to the purposeful addition of microorganisms into a laboratory nutrient medium is
Which method often results in colonies developing down throughout the agar and some colonies on the surface?
A nutrient medium that has all of its chemical components identified and their precise concentrations known and reproducible, would be termed
Which type of medium is able to distinguish different species or types of microorganisms based on an observable change in the colonies or in the medium?
The primary purpose of staining cells on a microscope slide is to
add contrast in order to see them better
The Gram stain, acid-fast stain and endospore stain have the following in common:
are differential stains
A microbiologist makes a fixed smear of bacterial cells and stains them with Loeffler's methylene blue. All the cells appear blue under the oil lens. This is an example of
A media is designed that allows only Staphylococci to grow. In addition, S. aureus colonies have a yellow halo around them and other staphylococci appear white. This type of media is
both selective and differential
Which of the following puts the Five "I"s in their correct order?
inoculation, incubation, isolation, inspection, identification
Why is oil of immersion often used when viewing specimens under the microscope?
to increase the resolution
If bacteria living in salty seawater were displaced to a freshwater environment, the cell structure that would prevent the cells from rupturing is
A procaryotic cell wall that has primarily peptidoglycan with small amounts of teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid is
The difference in cell wall structure of Mycobacterium and Nocardia compared to the typical gram positive bacterial cell wall structure is
predominance of unique, waxy, lipids
Chemical analysis of a bacterial cell structure detects calcium dipicolinic acid. What is the identity of this structure?
Lysozyme, an enzyme found in tears, provides a natural defense against bacteria by
hydrolyzing peptidoglycan in cell walls
Microorganisms require small quantities of this nutrient for enzyme function and maintenance of protein structure:
An organic nutrient that cannot be synthesized by the organism and must be provided is called a/an
The movement of substances from lower to higher concentration across a semipermeable membrane that must have a specific protein carrier and use energy is called
Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated on the shelf of a refrigerator, out on a lab benchtop, on the shelf of a 37 C incubator and on the shelf of a 50 C incubator. After incubation, there was no growth at 37 C and 50 C, slight growth out on the benchtop, and abundant growth at refrigeration. What term could be used for this species?
Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated out on the incubator shelf, in an anaerobic jar and in a candle jar. After incubation there was moderate growth of cultures in the candle and anaerobic jars, but heavy growth of the culture on the incubator shelf. This species is a/an
A microorganism that does not have catalase or superoxide dismutase would find it difficult to live in an environment with
Which of the following methods of enumerating cells is the only one to detect live cells?
viable plate count
You inoculate a culture into a test tube containing broth and take it out of the incubator the next day. You see the culture is growing equally throughout the broth. You conclude the culture must be
You inoculate a culture into a test tube containing broth and take it out of the incubator the next day. You see the culture is growing at the bottom of the tube. You conclude the culture must be
All of the following pertain to monkeypox except
the virus has shown a trend in becoming less virulent, with fewer outbreaks in humans
Herpes simplex-2 (HSV-2) causes
All of the choices are correct (genital lesions; intensely sensitive vesicles on or near the genitals; symptoms that include urethritis, cervicitis, and itching; infection in neonates that have contact with lesions in the birth canal)
All of the choices are correct (is transmitted by inhalation of respiratory secretions, is transmitted by skin lesion contact or airborne spread of lesion material, has an incubation of 10 to 20 days, has fever, and vesicular rash that occurs in successive crops)
If a person who has never been infected with the varicella-zoster virus comes in contact with a person who has shingles, they will come down with
Symptoms of infectious mononucleosis include
sore throat, fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, and splenomegaly.
The patients at greatest risk for severe cytomegalovirus infection include all the following except
individuals with hypertension
All of the choices are correct (is among the most common of human infections; is transmitted by saliva, respiratory mucus, milk, urine, semen, and cervical secretions; can be sexually transmitted; is commonly carried in the latent state)
Inflammation of the liver with necrosis of the hepatocytes and swelling due to a mononuclear response is a disease called
Hepatitis B virus
All of the choices are correct (is principally transmitted by blood; transmission risks include shared needles, anal intercourse, and heterosexual intercourse; is transmitted to the newborn from chronic carrier mothers; has many chronic carriers)
All of the choices are correct (nonenveloped, double-stranded, DNA viruses; transmitted by respiratory and ocular secretions; causes of conjunctivitis, common cold, and an acute hemorrhagic cystitis in children; causes of outbreaks among military recruits)
The correct sequence of events in viral multiplication is
adsorption, penetration, replication, maturation, assembly, release
In general, most DNA viruses multiply in the host cell's _____, while most RNA viruses multiply in the host cell's _____.
The virus-induced, specific damage to the host cell that can be seen in a light microscope is called
Visible, clear, well-defined patches in a monolayer of virus-infected cells in a culture are called
Which of the following is a type of cytopathic effect?
All of the choices are correct (inclusions in the nucleus; multinucleated giant cells; inclusions in the cytoplasm; cells round up)
This is often used in forensic science to distinguish one sequence of DNA from another by comparing the sequence of the strands at specific loci:
Influenza infection can be treated with
All of the choices are correct (amantadine; rimantadine; zanamivir; oseltamivir)
associated with congenital transmission causing miscarriage, deafness, and cardiac and mental defects
Encephalitis caused by arboviruses involve
All of the choices are correct (fever, headache, and rash; coma, convulsions, paralysis in severe cases; myalgia and orbital pain; muscle aches and joint stiffness)
Documented transmission of HIV involves
unprotected sexual intercourse and contact with blood/blood products
Spongiform encephalopathies are
All of the choices are correct (associated with abnormal, transmissible, protein in the brain; chronic, fatal infections of the nervous system; caused by prions; Creutzfeld-Jacob disease, kuru, and Gertsmann-Strussler-Scheinker syndrome)