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Digestive system Anatomy

STUDY
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physical (mechanical) digestion
begins with chewing of food in the mouth and continues with churning and mixing of food in the stomach
chemical digestion
different enzymes break down macromolecules to small organic molecules that can be absorbed
oral cavity
C
Function: receives food, and processes it through chewing
submandibular salivary gland
B
Function:produce salivary amylase, which aids in the breakdown of starches in the mouth; secrete mucin which aids in the lubrication of the food bolus as it travels through the esophagus
Liver
Function: detoxifies blood; stores iron and various vitamins; makes many plasma proteins; stores glucose as glycogen; breaks down glycogen to glucose to maintain blood glucose levels;produces urea from break down of amino acids; removes bilirubin from blood and excretes it as bile; helps regulate cholesterol levels
gallbladder
A
Function: stores excess bile produced by the liver; secretes bile into duodenum, when needed
Common Bile duct
I
conduction of bile from gallbladder
Large intestine
6
includes the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal
Functions: absorbs water, salts, and some vitamins; stores indigestible material until eliminated as feces
vermiform appendix
C
small projection off the cecum Function:involved primarily in immune functions; haven for beneficial bacteria
parotid salivary gland
C
Function: secretes alpha-amylase which is the first step in the decomposition of starches during mastication
tongue
B
Function: chewing and swallowing food, as well as for speech
esophagus
A
Function: passageway for food to stomach
Stomach
Function: storage of food; acidity kills bacteria; starts digestion of protein
duodenum
Function: breakdown of food in the small intestine;regulates the rate of emptying of the stomach via hormonal pathways
head of pancreas
D
Function: as endocrine gland, it secretes insulin and glucagon to control blood glucose levels;
as exocrine gland, produces pancreatic juice containing sodium bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid, and digestive enzymes- pancreatic amylase digests starch, trypsin digests protein, and lipase digests fat
Jejunum (small intestine)
Function: absorption of carbohydrates and proteins
Right Lobe (Liver)
Function:Manufacture proteins, including albumin (to help maintain the volume of blood) and blood clotting factors; Synthesize, store, and process fats, including fatty acids and cholesterol; Form and secrete bile that contains bile acids to aid in the intestinal absorption of fats and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K; Eliminate, by metabolizing and/or secreting, the potentially harmful biochemical products produced by the body, such as bilirubin from the breakdown of old red blood cells and ammonia from the breakdown of proteins; Detoxify, by metabolizing and/or secreting, drugs, alcohol, and environmental toxins
Left Lobe (Liver)
Function:Manufacture proteins, including albumin (to help maintain the volume of blood) and blood clotting factors; Synthesize, store, and process fats, including fatty acids and cholesterol; Form and secrete bile that contains bile acids to aid in the intestinal absorption of fats and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K; Eliminate, by metabolizing and/or secreting, the potentially harmful biochemical products produced by the body, such as bilirubin from the breakdown of old red blood cells and ammonia from the breakdown of proteins; Detoxify, by metabolizing and/or secreting, drugs, alcohol, and environmental toxins
Caudate Lobe (Liver)
Function:Manufacture proteins, including albumin (to help maintain the volume of blood) and blood clotting factors; Synthesize, store, and process fats, including fatty acids and cholesterol; Form and secrete bile that contains bile acids to aid in the intestinal absorption of fats and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K; Eliminate, by metabolizing and/or secreting, the potentially harmful biochemical products produced by the body, such as bilirubin from the breakdown of old red blood cells and ammonia from the breakdown of proteins; Detoxify, by metabolizing and/or secreting, drugs, alcohol, and environmental toxins
Quadrate Lobe (Liver)
Function:Manufacture proteins, including albumin (to help maintain the volume of blood) and blood clotting factors; Synthesize, store, and process fats, including fatty acids and cholesterol; Form and secrete bile that contains bile acids to aid in the intestinal absorption of fats and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K; Eliminate, by metabolizing and/or secreting, the potentially harmful biochemical products produced by the body, such as bilirubin from the breakdown of old red blood cells and ammonia from the breakdown of proteins; Detoxify, by metabolizing and/or secreting, drugs, alcohol, and environmental toxins
Labia (lips)
A
Function: food intake; articulation; facial expression
Vestibule (of mouth)
D
Function: allow range of motion of lips
Hard palate (of mouth)
G
Function: feeding and speech
Soft palate (of mouth)
F
Function: closing off the nasal passages during the act of swallowing, and also for closing off the airway; during sneezing, it protects the nasal passage by diverting a portion of the excreted substance to the mouth
Uvula
E
Function: plays a role in the articulation of some sounds
Lingual frenulum
C
Function: connects the tongue to the floor of the oral cavity
Sublingual salivary gland
A
Function:produce mainly mucus
Cardiac sphincter
C
Function: prevent a back flow of materials back into the esophagus
Lesser curvature (of stomach)
B
Function: gives attachment to the two layers of the hepatogastric ligament (lesser omentum)
Greater curvature (of stomach)
H
Function: attachment to the gastrolienal ligament and the two layers of the greater omentum
Cardia
D
Function: help keep stomach acid in stomach
Fundus (of stomach)
E
Function: allows for an accumulation of stomach gases produced by chemical digestion
Body (of stomach)
F
Function: digestion of food
Rugae (of stomach)
G
series of ridges produced by the folding of the wall of the stomach
Function:allow the stomach to expand when needed
pylorus (of stomach)
A
Function: prevent intestinal contents from reentering the stomach when the small intestine contracts and to limit the passage of large food particles or undigested material into the intestine
pyloric sphincter (of stomach)
I
Function: prevent intestinal contents from reentering the stomach when the small intestine contracts and to limit the passage of large food particles or undigested material into the intestine
plicae circulares (intestines)
B
large valvular flaps projecting into the lumen of the bowel
Function:slow the passage of the food along the intestines, and afford an increased surface for absorption
Villi (intestine)
A
Function:slow the passage of the food along the intestines, and afford an increased surface for absorption
Cecum
D
Function: absorb fluids and salts that remain after completion of intestinal digestion and absorption and to mix its contents with a lubricating substance, mucus
Ascending colon
F
Function: remove the water and other key nutrients from waste material and recycle it back into the body
ileocecal valve
E
Function: to limit the reflux of colonic contents into the ileum
Transverse Colon
H
Function: remove the water and other key nutrients from waste material and recycle it back into the body
Descending Colon
I
Function: store food that will be emptied into the rectum
Sigmoid Colon
K
Function: to move stool into the rectum
Rectum
B
Function: store waste until full; expel waste out of the anus
Anal canal
A
Function: to transmit and lubricate stool as it passes externally from the rectum
External anal sphincter
L
Function: it keeps the anal canal and orifice closed
Internal anal sphincter
B
Function: helps the Sphincter ani externus to occlude the anal aperture and aids in the expulsion of the feces
Anus
A
Function: provide exit for feces
Haustrum (plural haustra)
G
Function: aid in the expansion and elongation of the large intestine; move food through the large intestine
Tenia coli
J
Function: contract lengthwise to produce the haustra; aid in moving food through large intestine
Body of pancreas
F
Function: as endocrine gland, it secretes insulin and glucagon to control blood glucose levels;
as exocrine gland, produces pancreatic juice containing sodium bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid, and digestive enzymes- pancreatic amylase digests starch, trypsin digests protein, and lipase digests fat
Tail of pancreas
G
Function: as endocrine gland, it secretes insulin and glucagon to control blood glucose levels;
as exocrine gland, produces pancreatic juice containing sodium bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid, and digestive enzymes- pancreatic amylase digests starch, trypsin digests protein, and lipase digests fat
Main pancreatic duct
E
Function: supply pancreatic juices which aid in digestion
Accessory pancreatic duct
H
Function:supply pancreatic juices which aid in digestion
major duodenal papilla
B
Function: provides opening into duodenum for main pancreatic duct and common bile duct
hepatopancreatic ampulla and sphincter
C
Function: a muscular valve that controls the flow of digestive juices (bile and pancreatic juice) through the ampulla of Vater into the second part of the duodenum
Left hepatic duct
L
Function: drains bile from the left functional lobe of the liver
Right hepatic duct
M
Function: drains bile from the right functional lobe of the liver
Common hepatic duct
K
Function: transports secretions from the liver into the intestines
Cystic duct
J
Function: transports secretions from the gallbladder into the intestines
Mucosa (of intestines)
E
Function: barrier to the noxious substances, antigens, and pathogenic organisms; immune functions; secretion of digestive enzymes; absorbs metabolic substrates, i.e., the breakdown products of digestion, vitamins, water, electrolytes, recyclable materials such as bile components and cholesterol and other substances
submucosa (of intestines)
F
Function: support the mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract
Muscularis Layer (of intestines)
A
Function:keep the mucosal surface and underlying glands in a constant state of gentle agitation to expel contents of glandular crypts and enhance contact between epithelium and the contents of the lumen
Circular muscle Layer (of intestines)
G
Function: responsible for gut movement called peristalsis
Longitunal muscle layer (of intestines)
H
Function: responsible for gut movement called peristalsis
Villi (of intestines)
C
Function:increase intestinal absorptive surface area; have enzymes on the surface for digestion; help the intestines to move food along the digestive pathway
Crypts (of intestines)
B
Function: house stem cells that serve to constantly replenish epithelial cells that die and are lost from the villi
Lacteals (of intestinal villi)
D
Function: collect absorbed chylomicrons which are taken to the rest of the body through the Lymph fluid