JH - IOG - RCC Book Questions
NEBOSH International Technical Certificate in Oil and Gas
Terms in this set (76)
Why are accident investigations carried out
Accident investigations are carried out to.
To identify the immediate root causes of the incident - incidents are usually caused by unsafe acts and unsafe conditions in the workplace, but these often arise from underlying root causes.
To identify corrective actions that will prevent a recurrence - The main reason for investigating.
What are the four steps in the investigation process
The four steps in the investigation process are.
Gather factual information about the event.
Analyse that information and draw conclusions about the immediate and root causes.
Identify suitable corrective measures.
Plan the remedial actions.
Identify the categories of staff who might be considered useful members of an internal accident investigation team
A simple investigation might be carried out by the line manager of the area; a more detailed investigation often involves a team of investigators that might include
• A safety specialist
• Senior managers
• A technical specialist
• A worker representative
Offshore investigating teams may also include installation specialists from services such as drilling, well services, maintenance, process, and deck crews.
List the types of documentation which might be consulted during an accident investigation
Various documents may be examined during an accident investigation, such as:
Safe systems of work
Internal incident report forms
Log book entries
Computer printouts relevant to the situation
What are the two categories of immediate cause of accidents/incidents
Immediate causes are the unsafe acts and unsafe conditions that gave rise to the event itself.
These will be the things that occurred at the time and place of the accident.
For example a worker slips on a patch of oil spilt on the floor
The slip hazard = unsafe condition
The worker walking through it = unsafe act
A worker has been hit by a reversing vehicle in a loading bay.
List possible immediate causes and root causes
Immediate causes for such an accident might be:
• Failure to secure the load on the pallet
• Poor road positioning of the truck close to a pedestrian exit
• Aggressive breaking by the truck driver
• An inattentive pedestrian stepping out in front of the truck
On investigation each of these immediate causes might have their own separate root causes such as:
• No training for the driver, who is new to the workplace, has not worked with this type of load before and is unaware of the load securing techniques required
• Lack of segregation of pedestrian and traffic routes; no barriers and no markings to separate the two
• Lack of proper driver induction into the new workplace so they are unaware of the layout and position of pedestrian exits, etc.
• Poor maintenance of the truck
• No refresher training for existing staff, meaning that experienced staff become complacent
Give the meaning of the terms:
Lower Flammable Limit - LFL
Upper Flammable Limit - UFL
The Lower Flammable Limit - LFL or Lower Explosion Limit LEL:
The minimum concentration of fuel in air that is sufficient to allow combustion to occur.
Bellow the LFL, the mixture is too lean to burn.
The Upper Flammable Limit - UFL or Upper Explosion Limit UEL:
The maximum concentration of fuel in air that is sufficient to allow combustion to occur.
Above the UFL the mixture is too rich to burn.
Give the meaning of the classification "Carcinogenic"
Can induce the growth of malignant tumours.
What are the main dangers associated with LPG
The dangers of LPG lie with its flammability and explosive properties, and the fact that it is stored under great pressure.
And hence very low temperature, to retain its liquid state.
On release, LPG reverts to its gaseous state, with rapid and considerable increase of volume.
What is the purpose of Anti Foaming Agents
An anti-foaming agent or "defoamer" is a chemical additive that reduces and hinders the formation of foam in industrial process liquids
What term is applied to drilling wastes that contain naturally occurring radioactive materials - NORMs
Low Specific Activity sludge's - LSA Sludge's
Which four elements are common to health and safety, as well as general, management systems
The common elements are:
Plan - implies having a considered policy
Do - concerns the arrangements for putting the plan into practice.
Check - means it is necessary to assess or monitor performance.
Act - means performance should be reviewed leading to continuous improvement in the management system.
What are the four main areas of risk to be dealt with in the oil and gas processing risk control system.
The four main areas of risk are:
The field or rig and its associated facilities and support systems; safe access and egress; work environment; welfare facilities and accommodation; pipelines and structures; and electrical and communications
Plant and substances:
The drilling and pumping and transportation systems of the oil and gas; how the oil and gas are stored and handled; and all materials in use at the process area.
Organisational procedures such as work and shift patterns, job designs and the way work is done - and managed.
Management and leadership; competence and placement of workers; training and health surveillance necessary.
In risk control barrier models e.g. bow-tie
Between what criteria are barriers placed, and what are the barriers called
In a bow-tie diagram barriers are normally placed between the initiating event and the release, and the release and its consequences.
The barriers are placed to prevent, control or mitigate the outcome of the event and are known as
Lines of Defence (LOD) or Layers of Protection (LOP).
What main areas does a safety case/safety report cover
Identification of major accident hazards.
Evaluation of major accident risks and measures taken (or to be taken) to control those risks.
Arrangements for audit and audit reports.
Confirmation that an adequate safety management system is in place.
Major accident prevention policies.
Identification of the safety critical elements in place to manage major accident hazards.
Details of the emergency plan.
Explain the meaning of the term "Flashpoint"
Flashpoint is the lowest temperature at which sufficient vapour is given off to "Flash" - that is, ignite momentarily (and not carry on burning) when a source of ignition is applied to the vapour.
Identify the three classifications within flammability
Flammability falls into three distinct classifications:
Extremely Flammable - Flash point below 0 Celsius.
Highly Flammable - Flash point between 0 and 21 Celsius.
Flammable - Flash point between 22 and 55 Celsius.
Explain where the flammable range exists in a fuel/air mixture
The lower flammable limit is the minimum concentration of fuel in air that will allow combustion to occur - below this the mixture is too lean.
The upper flammable limit is the maximum concentration of fuel in air that will allow combustion to occur - above this the mixture is too rich.
The flammable range lies between these two limits
What four factors must we consider to ensure that the work that contractors do is covered by our own usual methods of safe working, to prevent accidents.
To make sure that the work contractors do is covered by the usual methods of safe working:
Ensure that hazards of the contractors job have been identified and steps taken to reduce the risks.
Ensure that a representative of the owner or operator is available to make sure contractors follow the rules of the installation.
Ensure that all contractor workers know who the site or installation contact person is, and how they can be contacted.
Have procedures in place that ensure close and safe working with contractors at all times.
Identify the simple five steps used to manage contractors
Step 1 = Planning.
Step 2 = Choosing a contractor
Step 3 = Contractors working on site
Step 4 = Keeping a check
Step 5 = Reviewing the work
What is the Dow Fire and Explosion Index
The Dow Fire & Explosion Index is a rapid hazard assessment method for use on chemical plant during process and plant development, and in the design of plant layout
What are the four main areas detailed and explained in a Permit to Work
Permits to work detail and explain:
• The work involved
• The isolations required
• Hazards in the work to be carried out
• Precautions to avoid injury
Identify six types of work where a Permit to Work might be required
Six areas where a permit might be required are:
• Hot work - welding, burning, grinding, etc.
• Live or high voltage work
• Working at height
• Working over water
• Work in confined spaces
• Special permits for work carried out under special conditions (usually maintenance work of a none-routine nature)
Identify four areas other than electricity where a safe isolation procedure might be used.
Safe isolation systems are concerned with the safe isolation of (only four required)
• Hydraulic (oil) power
• Pneumatic power and stored energy
• Residual energy
• Combustion engines
• Natural gravitational forces/weight
• Steam or high-pressure water systems
. Any combinations of or additions to the above
Explain the meaning of the term safe isolation
The interruption, disconnection and separation of all the equipment's motive power sources in such a way that this disconnection and separation is secure by lockable means.
What five key principles should be employed to ensure a safe shift handover.
Shift hand-over should be:
High priority, conducted face-to-face
Two-way with both participants taking joint responsibility
Carried out using verbal and written commands
Based on the analysis of the information needs of the oncoming shift staff
Given as much time as necessary
Identify four causes of ineffective communications
Ineffective communications come about from a variety of causes (only four required)
Some information is missed or missing
Unnecessary information is included, causing confusion
Information is inaccurate or misleading
The quality of information is poor
Information is not understood (either by transmitter or receiver)
Information is not carried forward over successive shifts
When are problems in communications most likely to occur
The most problems in communications occur:
During plant maintenance, when it runs across more than one shift.
In areas where safety systems may be over-ridden (e.g. Fire deluge system switched to manual).
During deviations from normal work working, such as breakdowns, or lack of spares.
When members of the team have been absent from work for long periods.
If handover takes place between experienced and inexperienced staff.
Identify four corrosion control practices and procedures
Corrosion control practices and procedures include (only four required).
Selection of materials: steels, corrosion resident alloys, plastics.
Chemical treatments: biocides and corrosion inhibitors.
Surface coatings: metallic, none metallic and paints/organic coatings.
Cathodic protection: galvanising and impressed current.
Process and environmental controls: control of through-put, dehumidification.
Initial design: safe concept, engineering and detail reviews, life cycle implications and corrosion risks.
Risk based inspection schemes allow a plan for carrying out critical inspections.
What four critical areas is this based on
The four critical areas that risk based inspection schemes are based on are:
Ensure the risks are reduced to ALARP
Optimise the inspection schedules
Inspect the most critical items of plant, equipment and components.
Use the most appropriate inspection methods.
Identify four ignition sources that could arise from maintenance or operations on an installation
Ignition sources are (select four)
• Electrical equipment
Routinely inspect and test to prevent faults developing that could cause sparks and overheating.
• Hot work
Welding, burning, etc. - control with a permit-to-work when done in sensitive areas.
Control and limit to restricted areas on site (welfare areas).
• Cooking and heating appliances
Locate safely, confine to a galley offshore and use carefully.
• Mechanical heat (overheating)
Control by good maintenance programmes.
• Deliberate ignition
Prevent by good security, perimeter fences (onshore), CCTV and security lighting.
How is safe isolation, stoppage, draining down and blanking of systems assured during a shut-down
It is vital for the safety of maintenance personnel that services are stopped, isolated, drained down, blanked etc. and remain in a safe condition for the duration of the work.
This is ensured by the work being carried out under the controls of a permit-to work.
The permit will have a completion section to ensure that all systems are put back into operable condition before start-up, to protect maintenance and operations personnel
Identify the factors to be considered when assessing the health and safety competence of a contractor
There are many factors that have to be considered when assessing the health and safety competence of a contractor.
One important factor is the contractor's experience and training, both in the type of oil and gas process that they will be working on and offshore safety requirements.
Whether the contractor has a health and safety policy in place, supported by the necessary organisation and arrangements, and the quality and extent of risk assessments carried out are also significant points to look for.
The contractor's recent health and safety performance (including any accident history) should be reviewed, as well as establishing whether any enforcement action has been taken against the contractor.
Evidence should be requested of the availability of suitable, up-to-date method statements; arrangements to monitor health and safety and carry out site inspections; qualifications; training records and skills cards carried by workers; and membership of professional bodies or trade associations.
Proof of the contractor having employer's liability and public liability insurance is an important factor, and references should be available from previous clients.
Finally, it is important to take into consideration arrangements for the selection and appraisal of any subcontractors and how liaison with the contractor is going to take place.
Describe three forces that may be imposed on a surface object
Three forces from:
Pulling (stretching) a material - tensile force
Pushing into a material - compressive force
A force not applied in line - shear force
External forces can be bending forces
Twisting forces - axial forces
Explain the term "Creep"
The gradual extension of material under a steady tensile stress, over a prolonged period of time
What are the conditions necessary for stress corrosion cracking to occur
The criteria necessary for stress corrosion cracking to occur are:
A susceptible material
A corrosive environment
Enough tensile stress to induce the condition
Describe TWO of the factors that promote "Brittle Fracture"
Factors that promote Brittle Fracture include (only two required)
Can affect failure in a brittle ductile mode. The effect is particularly important for materials that are subject to cold weather and LPG cylinders and systems.
Impact or "Snatch" Loading
Can produce very high levels of stress very quickly, particularly in such items as lifting equipment.
When subject to such loading, the material does not have time to spread the load evenly throughout the crystalline boundaries thus producing high areas of stress.
On failure in these locations the failure propagates throughout the material and total failure occurs.
Residual Tensile Stresses
Stresses "built into" the structure of the material by the fabrication or assembly processes, such as beams being pulled together or in the vicinity of welds.
These tensile stresses act within the loading, leading to brittle fracture, effectively "pre-loading" the material.
Inherent Brittle Material
Some materials have an atomic structure that has difficulty giving way under stress and will fail by brittle fracture.
Such materials include cast iron, glass and ceramics.
Outline the advantages and disadvantages of the different none-destructive testing techniques
JH - to be Completed
Why should all ESD systems be separate and independent of normal production controls
All ESD systems should be separate and independent to normal production controls so that common cause failures can be avoided.
Control valves should be independent with ESD systems, and not used for duel control or shut-down as they are not designed for tight shut-off.
What precautions are required when maintenance by-pass valves are installed around shut-down valves
Where bypass systems are provided around shutdown valves for maintenance purposes, they should be locked closed with the shutdown hand-wheels removed.
Valves on hydraulic system return lines themselves can cause failure, so should be locked open
What does the term "Blowdown" refer to
The removal of liquid content from process vessels and equipment to reduce the likelihood of fires or explosions occurring.
It is similar to depressurisation carried out in the gas process system
What are the purposes of a gas flare or "flare-stack"
A "Gas Flare" or "Flare-stack" is a tall discharge facility used to eliminate waste gas which is not required in other processes or for transportation.
They can also act as safety systems for the non-waste gases, venting process gases through pressure relief systems.
In emergency situations, the flare can burn-out total reserve gas
Identify three different flare types
Flare Types (three required)
Steam assisted flares
Have single burner tips and are elevated above ground to burn vented gas in a diffusion flame.
Most refineries and chemical plants use this type of flare.
Steam is injected into the combustion zone to promote turbulence for mixing and to induce air into the flame.
This ensures an adequate air supply and good mixing.
Use forced air for combustion and mixing, and give a relatively smoke-free flame.
The burner has many small gas orifices in a spider-shaped pattern inside at the top of a steel cylinder, and the air for combustion is provided by a fan in the bottom of the cylinder.
The fan speed can vary altering the amount of air for combustion.
These are handy for use when there is no steam available.
They are not normally used with large flares.
A simple flare tip without any steam or air mixing facility, and limited to gas streams with low heat content and low ration of hydrogen/carbon that will burn well without producing lots of smoke.
They manage with less air to give complete combustion and have lower combustion temperatures.
Enclosed ground flares
What was thought to be the main cause of the tank fire at Buncefield
The main cause of the Buncefield incident is thought to be the overfilling of a floating roof gasoline tank - tank 912
What is the main purpose of having a floating roof in a fuel storage tank
The main purpose of having a floating roof in a fuel storage tank is that the roof "floats" in that it can move up and down within the outer shell of the tank.
Always remaining immediately above the surface of the liquid contained, minimising the air gap and potential build-up of flammable hydrocarbon vapours
What types of fluids should be stored in a fixed roof tank
Fixed roof tanks are intended for use with liquids having very high flash points i.e. of low volatility, such as water, bitumen, etc.
What is the purpose of a bund around a fuel storage tanks, and how is it generally sized
Tanks should be surrounded by a bund to limit the spread of spillage or leakage, and should be designed to hold at least 110% of the capacity of the largest tank within the bund.
Making allowance for the space occupied by other tanks.
In exceptional cases where there is no risk of pollution or hazard to public, this figure may be reduced to 75%.
What contradictory questions arose from the Buncefield incident regarding bunding of tanks
In the Buncefield incident the bund was around three tanks; the capacity of the bund was thought to be sufficient, 110% of the largest tank.
But spillage into the bund from any one tank would affect all tanks in the bund in the case of fire.
This questioned the value of common bunding rather than individual bunds for each tank
Describe the two methods of filling tanks, and identify the circumstances where they would each be used
"Top Filling" is achieved through a filling valve arrangement - Usually gravity-fed - through the top of the tank.
More often used with smaller tanks and containers.
"Bottom Filling" where substance is delivered into the tank under pressure through a closed pipeline.
This is the common method for larger tanks and road tankers
What are the three stages of plant decommissioning
The three stages of decommissioning are:
What are the three elements that make up the fire triangle
Heat - (Ignition)
What are the five stages of combustion
The five stages of combustion are:
Heat is initially supplied by an external source which results in production of flammable vapour.
These vapours mix with air above the fuel and, if sufficient energy is provided, the combustion reaction begins between the vapour and the oxygen.
The point of ignition is reached when the reaction becomes self-sustaining (and no longer requires an external heat source).
At this stage combustion develops very quickly and there is a dramatic increase in temperature as the fire grows.
Once ignited, the fire may spread through direct burning or through the typical mechanisms of heat transmission (convection, conduction or radiation).
The rate, scale and pattern growth depend on a number of factors such as:
The nature, form and amount of oxygen (open, ventilated versus sealed containment); the amount of heat produced by the reaction.
After the growth period the temperature stabilises and the combustion process reaches a steady state where the reaction between fuel and oxygen is balanced until all the fuel is consumed.
Decay will begin when either the fuel or oxygen has been consumed.
The fire will extinguish and gradually cool down.
In the early stages of decay, there is still a considerable amount of heat; there is certainly enough to cause re-ignition if more fuel or oxygen is supplied.
In the latter case, admission of oxygen (e.g. opening a window) into an oxygen-depleted room can result in a sudden explosive re-ignition of vapours.
List the three hazard zones and the categories of electrical equipment to be used in each zone
Zone 0 or Zone 20 = Category 1 equipment
Zone 1 or zone 21 = Category 1 0r 2 equipment
Zone 2 or Zone 22 = Category 1, 2 or 3 equipment
What are the two common types of boilers and the two forms of each
Steam Boilers - The two common types of steam boilers are:
In which the unused condensed steam goes back through the system to be reheated.
Where the boiler vents unused steam from the system, usually requiring a continuous flow of water.
Closed and Open Boilers - are also in two forms
(The most common type) having an outer shell (the Firetube) with tubes of water inside it.
Heated gasses pass through the core of the Firetube and heat water in the internal water tubes, which creates the steam.
The simplest boiler, having a vertical tube above the heating source.
Water enters the vertical tube and is heated until it becomes steam, which then passes out through the top of the tube.
What is "Flame Impingement" and what problems are commonly caused by it
Is where a flame that is used to heat the water of a boiler touches boiler surfaces, such as directly on heated coils or pipework.
This can cause erosion and corrosion, cracking and failure of the materials
Identify TWO none-destructive test (NDT) methods for identifying internal defects in materials
Two non-destructive testing (NDT) methods that will detect internal defects are ultrasonics, using sound waves to penetrate into material,
and radiography using gamma or x-rays to penetrate through the material, leaving a pictorial image on film.
For the two methods identified, outline the advantages and disadvantages of each method
The advantages of ultrasonics are that it can detect the precise location of internal defects and can size many defects too.
Its disadvantages are that it is expensive, requires a skilled operator and a power supply.
The advantages of radiography are that it can locate the majority of internal defects and it gives a permanent pictorial record of the defect.
Disadvantages are the radiation risk to the operators and others in the testing area, and there are limits to the thickness it can accurately penetrate.
It needs a power supply and access to both sides of the material tested.
In relation to fire protection, outline the principle of operation of a voting system and when it might be used
Voting systems are used in order to minimise false alarms, in cases where activation has consequences such as shutting down production (you don't want that unless it is absolutely necessary as it will cost significant time and money).
The principle of operation is that more than one detector in a set must be triggered and it is in this sense that it is called a "voting" system.
They can be set to different sensitivities depending on the risk (typically two out of three).
Outline the main components of a fixed water deluge system
Fire-water source, e.g. sea water.
Fire-water pump, sized to deliver the necessary pressure and flow rate and designed to be activated quickly.
Fire-water mains - the pipework transporting the water from the pump to where it is needed; these may be normally dry or for speedier response, wet.
Discharge nozzles (controlled by a single valve for a given array of nozzles)
Describe the difference between active and passive fire protection measures
Passive Fire Protection
Is predominantly thermally insulating design elements that are put and left in place, like fire barriers, fire resistant coatings and cladding.
They help stop escalation of the fire and protect routes.
Active Fire Protection
Means measures that are brought into play when a fire is detected, in order to actively tackle/extinguish the fire, e.g. fixed sprinkler installations, hoses and monitors
Outline the fire protection that would be used on a floating roof tank
For floating roof tanks the main means of fire protection is to use fixed foam installations which spread foam around the rim seal.
Monitors and water deluge cooling sprays may also be used
Outline what is meant by a "Fire and Explosion Strategy"
Basically it is a record of specific fire and explosion risk assessment.
It would typically involve considering:
• The forgeable fires/explosions (cellulosic, hydrocarbon pool, hydrocarbon jet).
• Their likelihood of occurrence and likely severity which may depend on:
Location (accommodation, process module, helideck, etc.).
Nature of gas/liquid/, the way in which they are being handled (temperature/pressure) and the amounts in use.
Complexity of the installation.
• Other related issues, such as:
Human factors (i.e. how people behave in a fire/explosion).
Remoteness of the installation (proximity of external help).
This aids selection of the most appropriate fire/explosion prevention and mitigation measures.
Outline the tiered, three-level approach to emergency medical treatment
The tiered three-level approach to emergency medical treatment is:
Level 1 - Basic first-aid:
Intended as first line treatment to preserve life and stabilise the injured:
Requiring the provision of an adequate number of trained first-aiders (depending on the level of risk, number of workers, installation remoteness, etc.) and first-aid equipment (first-aid kits etc.).
Level 2 - Advanced first-aid
Requiring first-aiders with more advanced skills (such as the use of specialised equipment or methods).
Level 3 - Utilising medics or paramedics
With remote support from other medical professionals, who will have specific medical training and be capable of administering drugs, advanced wound treatment, etc.
Distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary offshore evacuation methods
Offshore evacuation methods are:
The usual none-emergency method, e.g. ship.
Used when the primary method is unavailable, e.g. lifeboat launched from the rig.
Heavily reliant on the individuals own effort and used as a last resort when all other methods are unavailable, e.g. putting on lifejackets and survival suits and jumping into the sea.
What is the difference between "recovery" and "rescue"
Means that a person who has had to abandon an installation using a secondary or tertiary method is extracted from the sea or vessel by a rescue craft (such as a standby vessel or search and rescue helicopter).
Is one step beyond recovery - it is recovery but to a place where they can receive medical attention
Give a brief summary of the emergency command structure for offshore installations
In such circumstances the Offshore Installations Manager (OIM) is in overall charge.
They will be assisted by two on-scene commanders (one from drilling and one from process), a permit controller, a radio operator and an Offshore Installation Supervisor (OIS).
A floating roof tank used for storing petroleum products has no fire protection in place. CCTV cameras are the only form of leak detection currently used on the site. You have been tasked with selecting additional leak detectors and fire protection equipment.
Outline the issues/factors to take into account in selecting this additional leak detection equipment
The location of the detectors
Taking into account the properties of the gas, such as its density and tendency to collect in low-lying areas.
Because of this, placing them at high level may not be advisable; putting them in the bund at low level might be better.
What are local air flows like
What dispersal or dilution properties will they have?
How many detectors will be required, based on the number of likely leak locations, such as valves, joints, seams, ect?
We must provide adequate maintenance and testing of the detectors and put in place maintenance and testing plans and records.
Detectors will need an uninterruptable electrical power supply in case of power failure on the installation, and they must be robust enough to endure the rigors of the environment and intrinsically safe.
The detectors must be reliable.
Give the meaning of the term "Active Fire Protection"
Active fire protection means the provision of equipment, systems and methods which, following initiation, may be used to control, mitigate and extinguish fires
Identify TWO suitable forms of active fire protection that could be used for this type of tank
A fixed foam deluge system at high level, supplemented with foam monitors on the ground.
A water deluge system for cooling the outer shell of the tank
Outline what is meant by the term "Flagging" when applied to vessels
International vessels must be registered to a country and abide by its maritime regulations - this is called "flagging".
For example, UK registered vessels ("UK Flagged") must comply with the requirements of the UK's Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA).
These requirements cover (very briefly):
Certification/approval of vessels, certain equipment on board and crew members; inspection of the vessel (to maintain certification/approval).
Outline the options for personnel transfer and boarding methods
Personnel transfer and boarding methods
Depending on weather, location and whether the vessel is fitted with a helideck.
Transferred from ship-to-ship using the ship's crane.
Gangways, bridges and accommodation ladders:
The usual means of transfer between ship and shore where a ship is moored at port.
Rope Ladder (for pilot transfer):
Usually transferred out at sea from a small pilot boat to ship via a rope ladder hung over the side of a ship.
Outline the four steps of the diving operation management process
The four steps of the diving operation management process are:
All parties should comply with all applicable national, international, industry and company/contractor requirements for the diving operation.
Covers a whole range of activities including such things as: communications, job scope, initial stages of risk assessment, competence, system/equipment checks, emergency planning, change management.
Includes site rules, later stages of risk assessment (on-site), briefings, permit-to-dive.
Measuring and Improving:
Review of the operation and any incidents and what lessons can be learned.
Outline the general requirements for dangerous goods tanker driver training
The course must cover both theory and practice and the driver must sit an externally assessed examination - for the classes of goods being carried.
This gives him a certificate of competency, which has to be updated at specific intervals.
The course would cover some general aspects of dangerous goods transportation but, for tanker drivers, will also cover tanker specific issues, such as:
Vehicle behaviour (e.g. load movement/surge)
Specific vehicle requirements
Filling and discharging
Outline why it might be important to plan the route of a road tanker carrying dangerous goods
There are two basic reasons why it might be important to plan the route of a road tanker carrying dangerous goods.
1. Not all roads are suitable for tankers (narrow roads, weak bridges).
2. The security threat (terrorism, theft) to the valuable load being carried and its possible use as a terrorist weapon.
Identify three risks associated with offshore diving
The three risks associated with diving operations are (note more than three mentioned here).
Divers and others involved could drown.
Divers could become trapped, e.g. by their own airlines or by moorings, or become stuck in a soft seabed.
Divers could encounter problems with their breathing apparatus, such as faulty demand valves, incorrect gas mixture, loss of gas.
Divers could develop illness during the dive, such as blackouts, decompression sickness, nitrogen narcosis or oxygen poisoning.
There could be communication errors leading to mistakes being made.
Collisions could occur, e.g. a vessel escaping from its moorings or from an ROV in use.
The effects of extreme environment, such as rough seas, changeable weather, cold, poor visibility in the water.
Seismic operations or simultaneous operations in the area of the dive.
Identify suitable controls to minimise offshore diving operation risks
Suitable controls to minimise the risks in offshore diving operations include.
Set up and agree a common communication system practiced and understood by all involved - including between surface and underwater crews.
Agree roles and responsibilities of all parties - surface and underwater.
Carry out a suitable and sufficient assessment of the risks associated with the hazards identified.
Put in place a comprehensive diving plan.
Identify and validate the qualifications, experience and competence of all divers and other participants, including boat crews.
Carry out safety checks on the diving and breathing equipment.
Take account of possible emergencies and formulate a plan.
Ensure adequate rescue and recovery equipment available for emergencies.
Carry out safety briefings.
Use Permit-to-Work to identify and control the risks.
Monitor weather - meteorological and oceanographic reports.