AP Bio Discovery of DNA, Structure of DNA, DNA Replication

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Who was Rosalind Franklin?
(1952) Chemist who photographed DNA with X-Ray photos. She was responsible for much of the research and discoveries that led to the understanding of the structure of DNA but was beaten to publication by Crick and Watson, in part due to the friction between Maurice Wilkins and herself. She died in 1958, leaving her unable to receive the Nobel prize with Watson, Crick, and Wilkins
Who were James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins
(1953) Scientists who jointly received the Nobel Prize in 1962 for their 1953 determination to the structure of DNA without Wilkin's colleague, Rosalind Franklin, due to her death 4 years prior
What are the four nitrogen bases?
cytosine, thymine, adenine, guanine
What does Adenine pair with
pairs with Thymine in DNA, Uracil in RNA
What does Thymine pair with
pairs with Adenine in DNA, not present in RNA
What does Cytosine pair with
pairs with Guanine in DNA and RNA
What does Guanine pair with
pairs with Cytosine in DNA and RNA
where are hydrogen bonds used in DNA
substance that holds pairs of Nitrogen bases together
deoxyribose sugar
connects with phosphate and a nitrogen base to make a nucleotide
phospate
connects with deoxyribose sugar and a nitrogen base to make a nucleotide
What is a nucleotide
1 nucleotide, 1 phosphate, and 1 deoxyribose sugar; make up a DNA molecule
What are the rungs of DNA Model made of?
Nitrogen bases and hydrogen bond
What are the rails of DNA Model made of?
deoxyribose sugar and phosphate
What is the generalized structure of DNA
A double helix or twisted ladder
ribose
the sugar in RNA, contrary to the sugar in DNA, which is deoxyribose
Single-stranded
RNA is this, while DNA is double-stranded
mutation
a variation that occurs when cells make mistakes in copying their own DNA; can be inherited
DNA Replication
The process of making identical copies of DNA before cell division.
Replication Fork
The Y-shaped region that results when the two strands separate.
Type of bond between bases
Weak Hydrogen bonds
nucleotide
A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
Double Helix
DNA's structure is a double helix - twisted ladder.
Helicase
An enzyme that unwinds the double helix of DNA and separates the DNA strands in preparation for DNA replication.
DNA polymerase
Enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule and that also "proofreads" the DNA for errors.
Semi-conservative Replication
Each half of an original DNA molecule serves as a template for a new strand, and the two new DNA molecules each have one old and one new strand.
DNA's location in the cell
DNA is located in the nucleus (of eukaryotic cells like plants and animals)
Bases held together by 3 hydrogen bonds
Guanine and Cytosine
Bases held together by 2 hydrogen bonds
Adenine and Thymine
Number of rings found in purines
Two
Number of rings found in pyrimidines
One
hold the DNA strands toghether
what do hydrogen bonds do
unwinds the hydrogen bonds
what does helicase do
5' to 3'
leading strand
point of origin
where does dna replication start
Okazaki fragments
Found on the lagging strand
DNA primase
Enzyme that creates an RNA starting point for DNA polymerase to begin replication
Deoxyribose
5-carbon sugar DNA is named from
DNA Replication
the process of making identical copies of DNA before cell division
Semi Conservative
Each half of an original DNA molecule serves as a templete for a new strand, and the two new DNA molecules each have one old and one new strand.
helicase
An enzyme that unwinds the double helix of DNA and separates the DNA strands in preparation for DNA replication.
DNA Polymerase
Enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
DNA ligase
enzyme which connects the individual okazaki fragments on the lagging strand by forming covalent bonds
replication fork
The Y-shaped region that results when the two strands separate
antiparallel
Having two strands that run parallel to each other, but one is upside down.
pairs with adenine
thymine
pairs with cytosine
guanine
pairs with thymine
adenine
pairs with guanine
cytosine
double helix
Shape of DNA
Watson and Crick
Figured out structure of DNA was a double helix
Avery
Proposed that DNA could transmit disease, not protein & that hereditary material was probably made of DNA, not protein
Chargaff
Determined that the amounts of A in a DNA molecule are equal to the amounts of T and the amount of G is equal to the amount of C
Rosalind Franklin
Woman who generated x-ray images of DNA, she povided Watson and Crick with key data about DNA
Hershey and Chase
Used radioactive material to label DNA and protein; infected bacteria passed on DNA; helped prove that DNA is genetic material not proteins
type of bond between bases
hydrogen
nucleotide
A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
nucleotide
nucleotide
double helix
DNA's structure is a double helix
helicase
helicase unzips or unwinds the DNA strands
antiparallel
one strand runs 5' to 3' while the other is upside down
DNA polymerase
structure D is polymerase; it is adding nucleotides to the new DNA strand
semiconservative
the new DNA strand contain one strand that is old and one that is new
DNA in nucleus
DNA is located in the nucleus (of eukaryotic cells like plants and animals)
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