How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

175 terms

Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology 8th Edition: Chapter 1- Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology

This is a set of anatomy flash cards created to help the students attending Brandon Valley High School.
STUDY
PLAY
Anatomy
The branch of science that deals with the structure (morphology) of body parts.
Physiology
The study of body functions.
Characteristics of Life
1. Movement
2. Responsiveness
3. Growth
4. Reproduction
5. Respiration
6. Digestion
7. Absorption
8. Circulation
9. Assimilation
10. Excretion
Movement
Change in position of the body or of a body part; motion of an internal organ.
Responsiveness
Reaction to a change taking place inside or outside the body.
Growth
Increase in body size without change in shape.
Reproduction
Production of new organisms and new cells.
Respiration
Obtaining oxygen, removing carbon dioxide, and releasing energy from foods (Some forms of life do not use oxygen in respiration.)
Digestion
Breakdown of food substances into simpler forms that can be absorbed and used.
Absorption
Passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids.
Circulation
Movement of substances from place to place in body fluids.
Assimilation
Changing of absorbed substances into chemically different forms.
Excretion
Removal of wastes produced by metabolic reactions.
Requirements of Organisms
1. Water
2. Foods
3. Oxygen
4. Heat
5. Pressure
Water
-Most abundant substance in the body
-Required for metabolic processes
-Required for transport
-Regulates body temperature
Food
-Supply energy
-Supply raw materials
Oxygen
-One-fifth of air
-Used to release energy from nutrients
Heat
-Form of energy
-Party controls rate of metabolic reactions
Pressure
-Application of force to something.
-Two types:
a) Atmospheric pressure
b) Hydrostatic pressure
Atmospheric Pressure
Important for breathing.
Hydrostatic Pressure
Keeps the blood flowing throughout the body.
Homeostasis
A state of balance in which the body's internal environment remains in the normal range.
Homeostatic Mechanisms
-Monitor aspects of the internal environment and corrects any changes.
-Three types:
a) Receptors
b) Set Point
c) Effectors
Receptors
Provide information about specific conditions (stimuli) in the internal environment.
Set Point
Tells what a particular value should be.
Effectors
Cause responses that alter conditions in the internal environment.
Negative Feedback
Maintains homeostasis (ex: thirst, respiration, body temperature)
Positive Feedback
Changes cause additional similar changes.
Atom
Smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element.
Molecule
A particle composed of two or more joined atoms.
Macromolecule
Large molecules formed when smaller molecules combine in complex ways.
Cell
Basic structural & functional unit of all living things.
Tissue
Cells with a common origin, appearance, and function.
Differentiation
Group of cells having a common origin become specialized for certain physiological functions.
4 Types of Tissues in Animals
1. Epithelial
2. Connective
3. Muscular
4. Nervous
Epithelial Tissue
Covers and protects surfaces.
Connective Tissue
Joins parts together and provides support.
Muscular Tissue
Allows movements to occur.
Nervous Tissue
Responds to environmental stimuli and coordinates bodily activity.
Organ
Two or more different kinds of tissues joined together to perform a specific function.
Organ System
A group of organs act together to perform a highly complex and specialized function.
Organism
A group of organ systems form an organism.
Axial Portion
-Body cavity that includes the head, neck, and trunk.
-Two major cavities:
a) Dorsal Cavity
b) Ventral Cavity
Appendicular Portion
Body cavity that includes the upper and lower limbs.
Dorsal Cavity
Can be subdivided into two parts:
a) Cranial Cavity
b) Vertebral Canal
Cranial Cavity
Within the skull; houses the brain.
Vertebral Canal
Contains the spinal cord within sections of the backbone (vertebrae).
Ventral Cavity
Consists of a:
a) Thoracic Cavity
b) Abdominopelvic Cavity
Viscera
Organs within a ventral cavity.
Diaphragm
A sheetlike structure largely composed of skeletal muscle and connective tissue that separates thoracic and abdominal cavities; also, a caplike contraceptive device inserted in the vagina.
Thoracic Cavity
Composed of skin, skeletal muscles, and various bones.
Mediastinum
Separates the thoracic cavity into two compartments.
Thoracic Viscera
Located in the mediastinum containing the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland.
Abdominal Cavity
Houses viscera like the stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, and most of the small and large intestines.
Pelvic Cavity
Portion of the abdominopelvic cavity enclosed by the hip bones.
Cavities within the Head
1. Oral Cavity
2. Nasal Cavity
3. Orbital Cavities
4. Middle Ear Cavities
Oral Cavity
Containing the teeth and tongue.
Nasal Cavity
Located within the nose and divided into right and left portions by a nasal septum. Sever air-filled sinuses connect to the nasal cavity which include the frontal sinuses and sphenoidal sinuses.
Orbital Cavities
Containing the eyes and associated skeletal muscles and nerves.
Middle Ear Cavities
Containing the middle ear bones.
Parietal pleura
Cell of a gastric gland that secretes hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor.
Visceral Pleura
Membrane that covers the surfaces of the lungs.
Parietal
Refers to the membrane attached to the wall of a cavity.
Visceral
Refers to the membrane that is deeper-toward the interior and covers an internal lung.
Pleural Membranes
Serous membranes that enclose the lungs and line the chest wall.
Pleural Cavity
Potential space between pleural membranes.
Visceral Pericardium
Thin membrane that covers the heart's surface.
Pericardial Cavity
Potential space between the visceral pericardium and parietal pericardium.
Peritoneal Membranes
The lining membranes in the abdominopelvic cavity.
Integumentary System
Organs of this system include the skin and various accessory organs, such as the hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands.
Skeletal System
Consists of bones, ligaments, and cartilages.
Muscular System
Organs of this system include muscles.
Nervous System
Organs of this system include the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs.
Never Impulses
Electrochemical signals used by cells within the nerve system in order to communicate with one another.
Endocrine System
Includes all the glands that secrete chemical messages called hormones.
Hormone
A substance that an endocrine gland secretes and that the blood or body fluids transport.
Cardiovascular System
Organs in this system include the heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, and blood.
Lymphatic System
Composed of the lymphatic vessels, lymph fluids, lymph nodes, thymus gland, and spleen; sometimes considered part of the cardiovascular system.
Digestive System
Organs of this system receive foods from the outside and break them down. Organs of this system include the mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine.
Respiratory System
Organs of this system move air in and out and exchange gases between the blood and the air. Organs in this system consist of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Urinary System
Organs of this system include the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
Reproductive System
Organs of this system include the scrotum, testes, epididymides, vasa deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, penis, urethra, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, and vulva.
Anatomical Position
Standing erect, face forward, with upper limbs at the sides and the palms forward; left and right refer to the left and right of a body in anatomical position.
Superior
A body part is above or closer to the head.
Inferior
A body part is below another or toward the feet.
Anterior (Ventral)
Meaning towards the front.
Posterior (Dorsal)
Opposite of anterior; it means toward the back.
Medial
Relates to an imaginary midline dividing the body into equal right and left halves.
Lateral
Towards the side with respect to the imaginary midline.
Proximal
Describes a body part that is closer to a point of attachment than another body part.
Distal
The opposite of proximal; a particular body part is farther from a point of attachment than another body part.
Superficial
Situated near the surface.
Deep
Describes parts that are more internal.
Sagittal
Refers to a lengthwise cut that divides the body into right and left portions.
Transverse
Refers to a cut that divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
Coronal
Refers to a section that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.
Abdominal Regions
1. Epigastric Region
2. Left Hypochondriac Region
3. Right Hypochondriac Region
4. Umbilical Region
5. Left Lumbar Region
6. Right Lumbar Region
7. Hypogastric Region
8. Left Iliac Region
9. Right Iliac Region
Epigastric Region
Refers to the upper middle portion.
Left Hypochondriac Region
Lie on the left side of the epigastric region.
Right Hypochondriac Region
Lie on the right side of the epigastric region.
Umbilical Region
Refers to the middle portion.
Left Lumbar Region
Lie on the left side of the umbilical region.
Right Lumbar Region
Lie on the right side of the umbilical region.
Hypogastric Region
Refers to the lower middle portion.
Left Iliac Region
Lie on the left side of the hypogastric region.
Right Iliac Region
Lie on the right side of the hypogastric region.
Abdominal
The region between the thorax and pelvis.
Acromial
The point of the shoulder.
Antebrachial
The forearm.
Antecubital
The space in front of the elbow.
Axillary
The armpit.
Brachial
The arm.
Buccal
The cheek.
Carpal
The wrist.
Celiac
The abdomen.
Cephalic
The head.
Cervical
The neck.
Costal
The ribs.
Coxal
The hip.
Crural
The leg.
Cubital
The elbow.
Digital
The finger.
Dorsal
The back.
Femoral
The thigh.
Frontal
The forehead.
Genital
The reproductive organs.
Gluteal
The buttocks.
Inguinal
The depressed area of the abdominal wall near the thigh (groin).
Lumbar
The region of the lower back between the ribs and the pelvis (loin).
Mammary
The breast.
Mental
The chin.
Nasal
The nose.
Occipital
The lower posterior region of the head.
Oral
The mouth.
Orbital
The eye cavity.
Otic
The ear.
Palmar
The palm of the hand.
Patellar
The front of the knee.
Pectoral
The chest.
Pedal
The foot.
Pelvic
The pelvis.
Perineal
The region between the anus and the external reproductive organs (perineum).
Plantar
The sole of the foot.
Popliteal
The area behind the knee.
Sacral
The posterior region between the hipbones.
Sternal
The middle of the thorax, anteriorly.
Tarsal
The instep of the foot.
Umbilical
The navel.
Vertebral
The spinal column.
Cardiology
Branch of medical science dealing with the heart and heart diseases.
Cytology
Study of the structure, function, and abnormalities of cells.
Dermatology
Study of the skin and its diseases.
Endocrinology
Study of hormones, hormone-secreting glands, and their diseases.
Epidemiology
Study of the factors determining the distribution and frequency of health-related conditions occurring within a defined human population.
Gastroenterology
Study of the stomach and intestines and their diseases.
Geriatrics
Branch of medicine dealing with older individuals and their medical problems.
Gynecology
Study of the female reproductive system and its diseases.
Hematology
Study of the blood and blood diseases.
Histology
Study of the structure and function of tissues, also called microscopic anatomy.
Immunology
Study of the body's resistance to infectious disease.
Neonatology
Study of newborns and the treatment of their disorders.
Nephrology
Study of the structure, function, and diseases of the kidneys.
Neurology
Study of the nervous system and its disorders.
Obstetrics
Branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy and childbirth.
Oncology
Study of cancers.
Ophthalmology
Study of the eye and eye diseases.
Orthopedics
Branch of medicine dealing with the muscular and skeletal systems and their problems.
Otolaryngology
Study of the ear, throat, and larynx, and their diseases.
Pathology
Study of the structural and functional changes that disease causes.
Pediatrics
Branch of medicine dealing with children and their diseases.
Pharmacology
Study of drugs and their uses in the treatment of diseases.
Podiatry
Study of the care and treatment of feet.
Psychiatry
Branch of medicine dealing with the mind and its disorders.
Radiology
Study of X rays and radioactive substances and their uses in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders.
Toxicology
Study of poisonous substances and their effects upon body parts.