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231 terms

Music Content (113)

These flash cards are to help my fellow music ed majors that are preparing to PASS the praxis II music content knowledge test. Hope this helps!
STUDY
PLAY
Antiquity
500AD-500BC
Medieval
500BC-1300
Renaissance
1300-1600
Baroque
1600-1750
Classical
1750-1820
Romantic
1820-1900
20th century
1900-
Aria
solo vocal piece with instrumental accompaniment
Bouree
French baroque dance in fast duple meter
Cantata
Music composition using sacred texts(baroque)
Chanson
A french polyphonic song (late middle ages & renaissance)
Chorale
Protestant hymn melody (baroque)
Choral prelude
composition for an organ (baroque)
Concerto
composition for an orchestra & 1 or more solo instrument (classical period)
Divertimento
chamber music(classical period)
Etude
a study piece composition for development part of technique
Fanfare
loud brass instruments (esp. trumpets)
Fugue
imitative polyphonic composition, themes repeat
Gavotte
french peasant dance (baroque)
Gigue
popular baroque dance
Madrigal
A secular song for 2 or 3 unaccompanied voices (renaissance)
Motet
polyphonic composition sacred text w/ out accompaniment (renaissance)
Opera
A musical dramatic work
Organum
plain chant, note against note counterpoint (medieval)
Passacaglia
continuous variations on ground bass, similar to chaconne (baroque)
Recitative
spoken song (romantic)
Rondeau
french lyrical poem (renaissance)
Sarabande
most popular baroque instrumental dance
Sonata
composition for 1 or more solo instruments, one of which is usually a keyboard instrument, usually consisting of of 3 or 4 independent movements varying in key, mood, and tempo
Song cycle
group of completed songs (like a cd/ romantic)
string quartet
2 violins, viola, & a cello (classical)
Suite
An instrumental composition consisting of a series of varying movements or pieces
symphonic poem
orchestral form (ex. Lizst) (romantic)
symphony
an extended piece in 3 or more movements for a symphony orchestra
Toccata
keyboard piece, free in form, that displays dexterity (baroque)
Martele'
(bowing technique)hammered stroke with a crisp
De'tache'
(bowing technique)one bow per note
Ricochet
(bowing technique) bouncing bow quickly
Loure'
(bowing technique)seperate slurred notes used in slow tempos
Harmonic Series
8va-5-4
During the 18th & 19th centuries involved improvisation as part of the performance
Cadenza
Rim shot
(drumming technique)one loud hit
Flam
(drumming technique) 1 beat preceeding 1 beat (ex. ba-dop)
Drag
(drumming technique)2 beats preceeding 1 beat (ex. ba/da-bop)
Paradiddle
(drumming technique)par-a-di-dle
Refined strings
classical period
Mozart
classical period
20th century composers
Bartok, Babbitt, Aaron Copeland, Phillip Glass
Romantic composers
Chopin, Brahms,Beethoven, Mahler, Mendelssohn
Classical composers
Mozart, Haydn, Gluck
Medieval Composers
Hildegard von Bingen, Perotin
Renaissance composers
Guillaume dufay, orlando di Lasso, Palestrina, William Byrd
Medieval
monophonic, plain chant
Renaissance
polyphonic, no instruments, motet &madrigal
Baroque
small orchestras w/ basso continuo, keyboards
Classical
simple melodies, strings dominate, alberti bass
Baroque Composers
Bach, Handel, Moteverdi, Vivaldi
Bebop(Jazz)
Complex jazz style developed in the 1940's. Also bop. A jazz style which developed in the 1940's characterized by very fast or very slow tempos with improvised lines of eighth notes, irregular accents, and an extended harmony. The patterns often ended with an abrupt two-note figure that sounded like "be-bop".
Blues
American form of folk music related to jazz. It is based on a simple, repetitive, poetic-musical structure.
Dixeland(Jazz)
(1917-1920)An early style of jazz originating in the early 20th century in New Orleans with a simple, cheerful character.
Gospel
(late 19th century) stands for the type of religious popular song that succeeded the SPIRITUAL
Motown
is the term that refers to the style of music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan in the late 1960's. The Sound was a mixture of several popular musical styles and can be considered a form of soul music.
Ragtime(jazz)
An American style of music characterized by "ragged" or syncopated rhythms. It was popular between the 1890's and the 1910's. (Scott Joplin)
Rap
An American style of rhythmic chanting consisting of improvised rhymes performed to rhythmic accompaniment.
Rhythm & Blues
An American pop music style popular between the 1940's and 1960's.played by an ensemble, generally with a lead vocalist or instrumentalist, a rhythm section, and an ensemble of voices, wind instruments, or guitar.
Swing
American style of jazz music originating in the 1930's. characterized by "big band" instrumentation, a greater emphasis on solo passages, and a 4/4 tempo with an almost even emphasis on each beat of the measure.
Who composed "Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun?"
Claude Debussy
Who composed " The Four Seasons?"
Antonio Vivaldi
What is the name of the numbering scheme used to categorize mozarts wk?
Köchel Verzeichnis or Köchel Catalog
A term used to classify a composition in relation to the composer's other compositions.
Abbreviated as "Op." (work) or "Opp." (works)
a composition by Richard Strauss for cello, viola and large orchestra.
Don Quixote, op. 35
Composer of "moonlight sonata"
Ludwig van Beethoven
Abbreviation for Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis, used to catalogue the compositions of J. S. Bach.
BWV
Famous performers of the swing era
Duke Ellington & Benny Goodman
What instrument does Wynton Marsalis play?
trumpet
What instrument does Benny goodman play?
Clarinet
Famous drum soloist?
Gene Krupa
What instrument does Louis Armstrong Play?
trumpet
What instrument does John Coltrane Play?
saxophone
What instrument does thelonious monk play?
piano
Bebop jazz artist that played the trumpet, piano, and trombone
Dizzy Gillespie
1st scale degree
Ionian (I)
2nd scale degree
Dorian (ii)
3rd scale degree
phrygian (iii)
4th scale degree
Lydian (IV)
5th scale degree
Mixolydian (V)
6th scale degree
Aeolian (vi)
7th Scale degree
Locrian (vii)
Deceptive Cadence
V-?
Authentic Cadence
V-I
Plagal Cadence
IV-I
Half Cadence
ends on V
German Augmented sixth
augmented 6+ minor3
Italian Augmented Sixth
augmented 6+ Major3
French Augmented sixth
augmented 6+ M2
Accelerando
Gradually accelerating or getting faster
Anacrusis
An Upbeat or a pickup note(s); a term used for unstressed notes at the beginning of a phrase of music.
Augmentation
Statement of a melody in longer note values, often twice as slow as the original.
Diminution
A Renaissance and Baroque ornamentation which consists of the restatement of a melody in which the note values are shortened, usually by half.
Hemiola
In early music, this term meant the ratio of 3:2, employed musically in two senses: the ratio of the perfect fifth, whose musical value is 3:2, and the rhythmic relation of three notes in the time of two, i.e., the triplet. In the Baroque era hemiola was used in dance music in the sense that it denoted the articulation of two measures of triple meter as if they were three measures of duple meter.
Hocket
A Medieval practice of composition in which two voices would move in such a manner that one would be still while the other moved and vice-versa. Sometimes this was achieved by taking a single melody and breaking it into short, one or two note phrases, and dividing the phrases between the two voices so that a quick back-and-forth movement of the melody would be heard
syncopation
Deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse of a composition by means of a temporary shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an off-beat.
monophony
Music that is written for only one voice or part
polyphony
A style of composition that has many voices, each with its own melody, thus creating a rich texture of sound.
homophony
there is a distinct melody with accompanying harmony, but all move in the same rhythmic pattern.
heterophony
The practice of two or more musicians simultaneously performing slightly different versions of the same melody.
crescendo
get loud
decrescendo
get soft
marcato
marked, emphatic
ritardando
slow down
accent
emphasis
legato
smooth and connected
rubato
perform freely
staccato
detached & seperated
poco a poco
little by little
alla breve
A tempo marking indicating a quick duple meter
adagio
slow
andante
walking tempo
allegro
fast
vivace
very fast
rallentando
slowing down
Ritenuto
held back & slowing down
Timbre
The quality of a sound; that component of a tone that causes different instruments (for example a guitar and a violin) to sound different from each other while they are both playing the same note.
retrograde
This occurs when in a melodic line is performed backwards.
Aerophones
Instruments that produce sound by using air
chordophones
instruments that produce sound by vibrating string
membranophones
drums
Idiophones
percussion (ex. cymbals)
(k-12) vocal rage k-4
about an octave starting form middle C
What is the natural minor scale mode?
Aeolian
makes up the pentatonic scale
1,2,3,5,6 (C,D,E,G,A)
Tremolo
refers to a repeating pitch or pattern that is quick & continuous
Trill
an ornamentation completed by rapid moving between 2 pitches that are sequential within the key of the particular piece
Basses can sing in the range of...
D2-C4 or middle C
Baritones can sing in the range of ..
G2- F4
Tenors can sing in the range of ..
B2- G4
Contraltos can sing in the range of ..
D3-D5
Mezzo sopranos can sing in the range of..
A3-F5
Sopranos can sing in the range of ...
C4-C6 or high C
The registers of the voice
chest, middle, and head
Who developed the adaptation of solfege for the musical instruction of children?
Zolta'n Koda'ly
steps of conducting
1. preparation 2. ictus 3. rebound 4.Penultimate beat placing 5. Final beat placing
indicated by the speed of the acceleration and the force of the ictus
attack
the pt of the rebound
ictus
indicated by the size of the preparation
dynamics
is the space between the ictus of one beat and the ictus of the next
preparation
is indicated by the shape of the preparation
quality
What is the term for a musical expression repeated several times?
ostinato
break or interruption in music
caesura
the lowest bass voice
basso profundo
What is the name of the Brazilian dance that is slightly faster than the tango?
samba
popular cuban music
cha cha & mambo
What is the musical term for the simultaneous performance of variations on the same melody?
heterophony
What is the name for instruments that produce sound when the skin stretched across a chamber of air is struck?
membranophones
HORNBOSTEL -SACHS SYSTEM OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS CLASSIFICATION
Idiophones, membranophone, chordophones, aerophone, electrophone
What is the name for the unique and identifiable quality of the sound produced by a certain musical instrument
timbre
What is the term for a decorative note which is printed but not considered as part of the rhythm?
grace note
a term describing a lyric voice (soprano/ tenor)
spinto
Which of the following composers was labeled an Impressionist?
Debussy
Which form of music consists of a recurring theme alternating with contrasting material?
rondo
The sackbut was an early brass instrument that evolved into this
modern musical instrument.
trombone
This wooden flute-like instrument features a lip, a fipple, and a windway.
recorder
A type of psaltery or zither, the name of this instrument literally means "sweet sound".
dulcimer
This ancient woodwind evolved into the modern oboe. The metal band surrounding the bell made it a handy weapon as well.
shawm
Two instruments played simultaneously by one person, this combination was often used as accompaniment for juggling or acrobatic acts.
pipe &tabor
The primitive version of this instrument was operated by delivering heavy blows of the fist.
organ
This stringed instrument is featured in many Elizabethan compositions. Often equipped with several courses of strings, its distinctive feature is a half-pear shaped back.
lute
Also known as the "vielle a roue" or wheel-fiddle, this instrument features a wheel cranked by a handle. Early instruments required two players: one to push the keys and one to turn the handle.
hurdy gurdy
This instrument is often called a cornett. It can play as loudly as a trumpet or can approximate the sound of a human voice
zink
This medieval flute-like instrument features a gentle, haunting sound. It is made from the horn of a sheep or ox.
gemshorn
This instrument looks and is played like a violin, but it is a bit larger.
viola
This instrument is normally made of a black wood, is played with a double reed, and sometimes has a 'nasal' sound to it.
oboe
This instrument looks like a bed post and is played with a double reed that connects to the instrument using a bocal.
bassoon
is is one of the few (if not the only) brass instrument which uses a slide, not valves, in order to change the pitch.
trombone
This brass instrument needs the player's hand in the bell in order to help control the pitch.
french horn
This instrument is commonly made out of a silver-coloured metal and is played by blowing across, not into, the mouthpiece.
flute
This instrument is usually made out of a black wood, and is played using a single reed with a ligature.
clarinet
This instrument is mainly known for jazz music. It is a woodwind, but made out of metal and it curves up near the bell.
saxophone
This string instrument is too big to hold under a chin, so it is played with the instrument between the player's legs.
cello
How many strings does a violin have?
4
How many keys does a piano have?
88
This resonant instrument is unusual in the violin family as it has not always had four strings (it used to have three and now tends to have four or five). It is also often used in jazz bands.
double bass
Translated from the German, this member of the percussion section means 'bell-play'.
Glockenspiel
A metal bowl with a membrane stretched across the top is struck with sticks with blobs of 'stuff' on the ends. Keys at the side of the metal bowl can be turned to pinpoint the exact tone required.
Timpani
Which of these instruments would replace a tuba in a marching band?
Sousaphone
Which set of instruments commonly play in a concert Bb pitch?
trumpets, alto clarinets and tenor saxophones all use a concert Bb pitch.
A tempo of sixty indicates what?
There are sixty beats per minute.
What country was Henry Purcel from?
england
Tchaiks final composition?
pathetique
4. Who where the two most influential composers of the baroque period
bach and handel
Haydn was "father of?
modern symphony
Schuberts 8th syphony was?
unfinished symphony
Brahms 1st symphony is often called
beethovens 10th
beethoven moved to...
vienna
10. introduced the organ in church
Gabriellis
Beethovens original country was?
germany
one of mozarts damous operas
the magic flute
Stravinsky ballet that caused a riot in paris?
The Rite of Spring
manual or physical skills(skills)
psychomotor
mental skills(knowledge)
cognitive
growth in physical or emotional areas(attitude)
affective behaviors
considers the whole body a percussive instrument
Orff
approach encourages improvisation and discourages adult pressures and mechanical drill, fostering student self-discovery
Orff
trademark teaching methods include the use of solfege hand signs, musical shorthand notation (stick notation), and rhythm solmization (verbalization).
Kodaly
"rhythmic gymnastics", eurhythmics teaches concepts of rhythm, structure, and musical expression using movement, and is the concept for...
Dalcroze
includes love, high-quality examples, praise, rote training and repetition, and a time-table set by the student's developmental readiness for learning a particular technique.
Suzuki
Teaching methods help music teachers establish sequential curricular objectives in accord with their own teaching styles and beliefs
Gordon Music Learning Theory
General music courses that involve listening, composing, and performing for all students
Bennet Reimer
Praxial components of music education
David Elliot
Spiral curriculum theory & Special education
Jerome Bruner
tessitura
the range of an instrument
composed madrigals
Morley
romantic composer of The Barber Of Seville - Overture
Gioachino Rossini
composers of spirituals
hall johnson, william dawson, jester hairston
piece most appropriate for introducing the instruments of the orchestra to elementary general music students
peter and the wolf
The K-12 National Standards
1. Content Standard: Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music2. Content Standard: Performing on instruments, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music3. Content Standard: Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments4. Content Standard: Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines5. Content Standard: Reading and notating music6. Content Standard: Listening to, analyzing, and describing music7. Content Standard: Evaluating music and music performances8. Content Standard: Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts9. Content Standard: Understanding music in relation to history and culture
(elem. school)Every student receives general music instruction each week for at least _____ minutes, excluding time devoted to elective instrumental or choral instruction. Music is woven into the curriculum throughout the school day.
90
(elem.)Instruction on string instruments begins not later than grade ___, and instruction on wind and percussion instruments begins not later than grade 5. For the first year of instrumental study, students are taught at least part of the time in homogeneous instrumental groupings.
4
(elem)For band, orchestra, and chorus, a library of music is provided that includes at least ___ titles for each type of group. At least ____ titles for each type of group are added each year.
40 & 15
(middle/junior high& high school)Every music course meets at least every other day in periods of at least ____
45 min
General music is required of all students through grade
8
(middle/junior high & highschool)A library of small-ensemble music is provided that contains at least ____ titles for various types of ensembles. At least ____ new titles are added each year.
75 &15
An annual budget is provided for the replacement of school-owned instruments that is equivalent to at least ____ of the current replacement value of the total inventory of instruments.
5 %
Musical instrument digital interface
MIDI
An instrument that converts sound waves into an electric current, usually fed into an amplifier, a recorder, or a broadcast transmitter.
microphone
1st Valve
1 full step
2nd valve
1/2 step
3rd valve
1&1/2 steps
4th valve
2 1/2 steps
country music is mostly noted as being from what city & state?
nashville, tn
Lionel hampton was a famous jazz artist that played what instrument?
vibraphone