Bishop Kelly Mr. Franklin S1 FINAL
all questions and answers from review, textbook, notes, and online.
Terms in this set (52)
What is a macromolecule?
made from thousands or even hundreds of thousands of smaller molecules.
Anitbodies bind to fight viruses.
Enzyme carry out all the chem reactions
Messenger transmit singals
Define nucleic acids
contain hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus. polymers assembled from individual monomers.
Compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, usually in a ration of 1:2:1. Living things use __ as their main source of energy.
What important role(s) does each play in life?
Carbohydrates: source of energy
Lipids: store energy
Nucleic Acid: Store and transmits hereditary information
Proteins: Regulate cell process
What is a cell?
Basic unit of all forms of life
What is cell theory?
fundamental concept of biology that states that all living things are composed of cells; that cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things; and that new cells produce from existing cells.
What is Prokaryotes
unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus
What is Eukaryotes
organisms whose cells contain a nucleus
Function of chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from the sun and converts it into chemical energy
Function of mitochondra
"power house" of the cell. converts food to chemical energy
Function of cytoplasm
the portion of the cell outside of the nucleus. keep organelles in place.
Function of nucleus
Contains genetic material in the form of DNA
Function of cell wall
strong supporting layer around the membrane
Function of cell membrane
thin flexible barrier
The movement of materials against a concentration difference.
The movement of materials across the cell membrane without using cellular energy
What are the types of osmosis?
Isotonic - same strength
hypertonic - above strength
hypotonic - below strength
Replicate the following strand of DNA:
C T T C A G G A A C T A
Differences between DNA and RNA
1) RNA has ribose instead of deoxyribose 2) RNA is generally single stranded 3) RNA contains Uracil in place of thymine.
3 types of RNA
Explain how DNA is prepared for replication (be sure to use chromosome and chromatid in your explanation).
DNA is synthesized in the "S Phase" of interphase. Chromosomes are replicated and the cell at the end of the S phase contains twice as much DNA as before.
Draw DNA. Include all three components and show the different bonds between them.
Major types of mutation
Effect of mutation on protein chain
Harmful: disrupt normal biological activities and my result in genetic disorders
Beneficial: positively impact genetic makeup
that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur
he change of a single base pair causes the substitution of a different amino acid in the resulting protein. This amino acid substitution may have no effect, or it may render the protein nonfunctional.
Translate DNA through all 3 levels:
C T T C A G G A A C T A
C T T C A G G A A C T A
G A A G T C C T T G A T
C U U C A G G A A C U A
a mutation in which a sense codon that corresponds to one of the twenty amino acids specified by the genetic code is changed to a chain-terminating codo
indels (insertions or deletions) of a number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three
Example: All other alleles are masked. If a person is type O, it means that neither the type A or type B allele is dominant. However, if a person is type AB, this means that both the A allele and the B allele are equally expressed and are therefore
Example: A snapdragon flower that is pink as a result of cross-pollination between a red flower and a white flower when neither the white or the red alleles are dominant.
example: controlled by at least three genes with six alleles. If you are dominant for all of the alleles for height, then you will be very tall. There is also a wide range of skin color across people.
example: the gene of the ABO blood group system, and the human-leukocyte-associated antigen (HLA) genes. The ABO system in humans is controlled by three alleles, usually referred to as IA, IB, and IO (the "I" stands for isohaemagglutinin).
Detached earlobes are a dominant trait. A homozygous recessive male is crossed with a heterozygous female. What are the predicted genotype and phenotype ratios?
Do punnett square
Genotype: RR : Rr : rr
0 : 2 : 2
Phenotype: Detached : attached
2 : 2
what is heredity?
the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
what is a karyotype
the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species.
how is the sex of a person identified?
Homologous chromosomes are made up of chromosome pairs of approximately the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern, for genes .
A sister chromatid refers to either of the two identical copies (chromatids) formed by the replication of a single chromosome, with both copies joined together by a common centromere.
Cells that have two sets of chromosomes
Cells that contain only one complete set of chromosomes.
The same substances sticking to the same one
One different substance to another one.
Why is water polar?
Water is polar because, one side of the molecule is positive and the other side of the molecule is negative.
What are hydrogen bonds?
A type of chemical bond that is formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond forms an electrostatic link with the more electronegative atom of a polar covalent bond in the same or another molecule
What is osmosis?
Osmosis = Water
Water moves freely through the cell membrane and the cell has no control over it. It tries to be equal with the outside water. The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
What is the Cell Cycle?
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
What are the STEPS to the Cell Cycle?
1. Synthesis - DNA REPLICATES
2. G2 - growth, prepartion for cell division
4. G1 - growth
What is Meiosis?
During meiosis one cell divides twice to form four daughter cells.
4 Stages of Mitosis
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