35 terms

Emergence of the Modern United States 1877-1900

Taxes on imports or exports
land grants
land subsidies granted to railroad companies to encourage construction of rail lines to the West, areas of land given to settlers by the government in hopes of expanding growth in the west.
a grant or contribution of money, especially one made by a government in support of an undertaking or the upkeep of a thing
Andrew Carnegie
United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919), Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Robber barons
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price., People who'd built fortunes by swindling investors and taxpayers, and bribing officials, Captains of Industry.
John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy., Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history.
J.P. Morgan
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons", an American financier, banker, philanthropist, and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time., most powerful banker of the 1800's who used banking profits to gain control of major corporations
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
social stratification
one of two components, together with agricultural surplus, which enables the formation of cities; the differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production, and prestige
labor movement
an organized attempt by workers to improve their status by united action especially via labor unions (especially the leaders of this movement) 1880s on through the 1940s
Samuel Gompers
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924) provided a stable unified union for skilled workers.
Knights of Labor
One of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century. Founded by seven Philadelphia tailors in 1869 and led by Uriah S. Stephens, its ideology may be described as producerist, demanding an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories. Leaderships under Powderly, successful with Southwest Railroad System, failed after Haymarket Riot
American Federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
European immigration
From 1836 to 1914, over 30 million Europeans migrated to the United States. The death rate on these transatlantic voyages was high; one in seven travellers died. In 1875, the nation passed its first immigration law. The peak year of European immigration was in 1907 when 1,285,349 persons entered the country.
Asian immigration
some people wanted Asians out, but they were welcome before Gold Rush
melting pot
the mixing of cultures, ideas, and peoples that has changed the American nation. The United States, with its history of immigration, has often been called a melting pot.
a political scientist who views American politics as best understood in terms of the interaction, conflict, and bargaining of groups...competing among different groups shaped society
multicultural society
A society in which immigrants and native ethnic/racial minorities are assimilated into the dominant national culture. Those who prefer this model for America generally advocate encouraging assimilation in order to reinforce national unity
The Pendleton Act
The Pendleton Act of 1883 made campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and it established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of competitive examination. It was basically made to stop political corruption. The civil-service reform forced politicians to gain support and funds from big-business leaders.
The Muckrakers
The Muckrakers, prevalent from 1900 until 1910, didn't see themselves as progressives. They were journalists who brought attention to social, political, and economic injustices; they were the first journalists who wanted to inform Americans of problems. The Muckraker's work was often a criticism of the people for not being more involved. They thought most political problems were in the city, and appealed to a group of powerful urban-class progressives who had long stayed out of politics but suddenly had a growing interest. Although they were opposed, their growing numbers gave them strength, and they won important victories in the early 1900s.
Populist movement
movement of farmers in the late 1800s to become politically involved to protect their interest in America; movement wanted to expand the money supply and regulate Big Business
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Women's Rights
own property, buy and sell goods, make wills, obtain divorces, and take part in religious ceremonies
The Social Gospel
A major theological doctrine that consist the translation of a long-felt concern for the for the plight of the poor. One of its leader was Baptist cleric Walter Ruischenbusch, whose ideas had been forged by his ministry in the squalid Hell's Kitchen section of New York. He believed that the churches must not wall themselves off from the misery and despair and that the Kingdom of God on Earth would only be achieved by striving for the cause of social justice.
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
W.E.B. DuBois
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Robert LaFollette
Wisconsin was called the "Laboratory of Democracy" because many of the reform ideas of the Progressive era came out of Wisconsin, specifically from Governor Robert M. LaFollette aka "fighting Bob" republican
Farm-based movement of the late 1800s that arose mainly in the area from Texas to the Dakotas and grew into a joint effort between farmer and labor groups against big business and machine-based politics. The movement became a third party in the election of 1892.
The movement in the late 1800s to increase democracy in America by curbing the power of the corporation. It fought to end corruption in government and business, and worked to bring equal rights of women and other groups that had been left behind during the industrial revolution.
Comparison of Populism & Progressivism
The Progressive Movement was an outgrowth of previous reform eras in American history, including the ideas first presented by the Populists. While many Progressives were originally anti-Populists, they eventually came to believe that the large corporations and other monopolies that they were trying to reform as similar to the farmers revolt against the railroads and commercial practices and regulations of the government. Progressives favored the following that had been put forward by the Populists--direct election of senators; graduated income taxes; the initiative, referendum, and recall.
America's Imperialism
The change that is most obvious is most obvious in turn-of-the-century expansion was the addition of territory that was not in the continent of North America. Formerly U.S. was expansion was primarily to provide new lands for settlement by American citizens. In this new phase of expansion, however, land was added primarily for international trade and defense. Turn-of-the-century territorial acquisitions usually never became states or lands where the U.S.' constitution applied. Instead the new territories were part of the newly created American empire, an entity that had not existed as a result of previous expansion.
Before the phase of American expansion that occurred around the turn of the century, the United States had only expanded into lands in the North American continent. Turn of the century acquisitions, which included the Philippines Guam, Cuba, Puerto Rico , Hawaii and several other island groups in the Pacific, were not connected to the North American continent. This signaled that the U.S. had become just as other European nations had long been: an empire.
the Spanish-American War
Revolts against Spanish rule had been endemic for decades in Cuba and were closely watched by Americans; there had been war scares before, as in the Virginius Affair in 1873. By 1897-98 American public opinion grew more angry at reports of Spanish atrocities, and, after the mysterious sinking of the American battleship Maine in Havana harbor, pushed the government headed by President William McKinley, a Republican, into a war McKinley had wished to avoid. Compromise proved impossible; Spain declared war on April 23, 1898; the U.S. Congress on April 25 declared the official opening as April 21.

Although the main issue was Cuban independence, the ten-week war was fought in both the Caribbean and the Pacific and was notable for a series of one-sided American naval and military victories. The outcome by late 1898 was the Treaty of Paris which was favorable to the U.S., followed by temporary American control of Cuba and indefinite colonial authority over Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines. The defeat and subsequent end of the Spanish Empire was a profound shock for Spain's national psyche. The victor gained several island possessions spanning the globe and a rancorous new debate over the wisdom of imperialism.
the Panama Canal
Buit to make passage between Atlantic and Pacific oceans easier and faster because there were many Navy ships that needed to get from Gulf of Mexico out to the Pacific to help protect American islands in case of invasion; built by Roosevelt
"Big Stick" diplomacy
Diplomatic policy developed by Theodore Roosevelt where the "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them and was the basis of U.S. imperialistic foreign policy.
Open Door Policy
Foreign policy statement made by the U.S. in 1900 in which the U.S. stated that all countries should have equal trading rights with China. The U.S. announced this policy to further American trade.