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11th Grade U.S History Final
Terms in this set (99)
What was the "Civil Rights Movement"?
This was a movement for Racial Equality.
What were the roots of the Civil Rights Movement?
Slavery, Oppression, Racism, Discrimination, Segregation.
What were "Jim Crow Laws"?
Jim Crow Laws were oppressive laws passed in the South specifically designed to segregate POC from white people.
What was the "Plessy Vs Ferguson" case and outcome?
Plessy Vs Ferguson was a supreme court case that ended with the ruling that "separate but equal" was constitutional.
Was segregation any better in the North than in the South?
The South was WAY worse due to widespread segregation & racial laws. The North experienced "De Facto Segregation" which was segregation based on unwritten tradition or custom.
What were some of the impacts of Segregation?
African Americans received low-paying jobs, Higher rates of poverty & illiteracy, Couldn't vote in the South, Difficulty in accessing the same services.
How did WW2 affect segregation?
Truman tried to support the Fair Employment Practices (FEP) to promote fair treatment in job hiring & ended segregation in the military due to President Truman 's executive order.
What was the NAACP & how were they important to the Civil Rights?
Was an organization that focused on providing support to the Civil Rights Movement. They helped legal, financial, organizational & leadership support in civil rights issues.
What was "Brown Vs The Board of Education," and what was its outcome?
It was a Supreme court case in which the idea of "separate but equal" was brought into question & it overturned the ruling of Plessy Vs Ferguson.
Who were the Little Rock Nine & what was the importance of their actions?
This was one of the first groups of African Americans to be enrolled in a segregated high school. Took place in Little Rock, Arkansas & the Governor stepped in to try & prevent these students from attending class. President Eisenhower & the Federal Government stepped in & forced the Governor & the school to allow these students to attend.
What forms of protest were used during the Civil Rights movement?
Sit-ins, Boycotts, Marches, ANY MEANS OF PEACEFUL PROTESTING.
Why did the Civil Rights movement find more success and support in the 50s and 60s than in previous decades?
COMMUNICATION. Communication & Transportation were so far improved that people had access to communication more quickly and were able to spread messages more efficiently to a wider audience.
Who was Rosa Parks, and what role did she play in the Civil Rights Movement?
Rosa Parks was a member of the NAACP, a Civil Rights activist and one of the strongest women in American History. She refused to move on a bus for white passengers, was arrested & started the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
What were "Freedom Rides", and what affect did they have on Civil Rights?
Organized event in which Civil Rights activists took interstate buses to test the government's willingness to uphold that segregation was illegal. While on these bus trips they defied segregation laws in different cities. (In some areas they were met with violence).
Who was Martin Luther King Jr and what was his role? Who did he model his methods after and why?
He was the prominent leader in the Civil Rights Movement. He became the face & voice of this movement. He modeled his methods of protest after Ghandi, which were peaceful & nonviolent.
What was the "March on Washington"?
A protest march in Washington DC in 1963, attended by over 200,000 people & was the place of MLK's famous "I Have A Dream" speech.
Who was Malcolm X, what was "Black Power" and how did it differ from the Civil Rights Movement?
Malcolm X was a radical leader that helped to create the "Black Power" movement, which supported radical pride, black supremacy & supported violent action & self defense. MLK disagreed with this because he believed in peaceful actions & in integration.
In what ways did the Civil Rights movement find success?
Civil Rights Act of 1964- Made segregation illegal
Voting Rights Act of 1965- banned literacy tests, voting taxes, allowed the Federal Government to oversee voter registration
Knocked down barriers of voting & political participation for African Americans
Poverty rates fell
Increase in the number of African Americans high school graduates
Fair Housing Act
Appointment of Thurgood Marshall as the 1st African American Supreme Court Justice in 1967
What was the "First Red Scare" and how did it affect American society?
Widespread fear in America of the spread of Communism. Americans feared their democracy was being threatened.
What is Democracy? What is Communism?
Democracy: a system of government run by the whole population through elected representatives
Communism: Society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities.
What were the 2 reasons Hisotrians say American used to justify for dropping the Atomic Bomb?
Reason 1: To prevent further war & loss of life in Japan
Reason 2: To demonstrate America's power to the world & most of all the Soviet Union.
What was McCarthyism?
McCarthyism was the name given to those that were accused of subversion, espionage and treason. These accusations were often made with little to no evidence. People accused were "red-listed" and had hard time living in the U.S.
Define "the domino effect" & "containment" in the context of Cold War America.
Domino Effect: idea that if Communism began to spread & was not stopped, it would continue to spread like dominoes falling.
"Containment" was the American idea that if the Communism was prevented from spreading it could be contained and would lose its power and military aid in order to help in the containment of Communism.
What was the Iron Curtain?
Was an imaginary line that separated Eastern & Western Europe & eventually became the Berlin Wall that separated the Democratic West from the Communist East. This border represented the tension, distrust & fear felt on both sides of the conflict.
What were the reasons for the start if the Korean War?
A war to practice the containment policies of the Truman Doctrine.
What affect did media coverage have on Nixon/JFK presidential election?
Those who used a radio preferred Nixon because of his ideas. Those who used TV preferred Kennedy because he was better looking & looked more "presidential". This was the beginning of how we handle media & politics; image and policies matter.
What was the "Bay of Pigs" and the "Cuban Missile Crisis?" How did this reflect the tension of the Cold War?
Bay of Pigs: A failed counter-revolution that tried to overthrow the communist government of Fidel Castro.
Cuban Missile Crisis: A tense confrontation where the U.S placed missiles in Turkey & Italy & the Soviet Union placed missiles in Cuba.
The world was on the brink of a nuclear war.
What was Lyndon B. Johnson's "Great Society"?
A set of domestic programs sought to end social & economic inequality in the U.S. The idea was to create a "great society" in the U.S so that other people around the world could look up to.
How did the United States justify the Vietnam War?
This battle was against Communism. This was a war to prevent the spread of Soviet Union power.
How was the Vietnam War different from other wars? How did this lead to no clear victor, or as many believe a loss for the Americans?
There was no long term land gain. U.S military eventually retreated and stopped involvement.
How did the Vietnam War change the media's approach to reporting military conflict?
The media showed Americans the reality of war by displaying on TV exactly what was happening. Citizens didn't understand the reasons for war. This led to censorship in the media.
What social and racial issues related to the Vietnam War did Americans protest?
With the draft starting again for war, Americans were not happy. The Draft allowed college students, disabled, mostly upperclass elite from going to war. Poor and uneducated men were all being drafted. This caused resentment towards the government & provided a basis for the Counterculture movement.
What was the Counterculture movement? Who was involved? What did they believe? How did they voice their opinions?
A movement in America that pushed against the social standards of America, as well as against the government. Baby boomers & many minorities wanted social, gender , economic & racial equality; Practiced peaceful protests, sit ins, music, demonstrations and festivals.
Why did the U.S find such great prosperity in the post WW2 years? How was this different from other countries? How was it made possible?
U.S remained intact & increased their production & workforce. After the war, Americans could come back to their intact homes. Other people around the world came back to ruins.
What was the "Marshall Plan," & why was it significant? How was it different from WW1?
Marshall Plan was an American initiative to provide aid in rebuilding Western Europe in the post WW2 years. America provided over $12 billion in economic assistance to western European countries over 4 years.
In what ways did the 1950s create a mainstream society in America?
Reestablishing traditional gender roles (men working, women as the homemakers, children in school)
Consumer culture (increased production of household appliances)
Traditional family structure
What was a "nuclear family"?
Married man & woman with dependent children.
- This family structure was reflected in the media, TV shows & advertisements. It was publicized & accepted.
What was the "G.I. Bill" and what did it do?
Provided money to returning war veterans for college or vocational school. This assistance helped more Americans go to college than ever before & buy homes.
Define "American Conformity" in the 1950s.
"Keeping up with the Joneses" if someone has it, then you should too.
How did the suburbs change?
More people were able to afford homes, so the suburbs grew larger and more people began leaving cities to move there.
What were the Levittowns?
Levittowns were suburbs that were created from pre-made homes.
What was the "Baby Boom"? How is it a reflection of post WW2 American Society?
Huge increase in American birth rate & population. Reflected American society because the country and its people were so prosperous that they could afford having many children.
How did people try to shape American society?
American society began to be shaped by mass media, advertising, books, TV, etc. All of these things portrayed an idealized American society that everyone should conform.
Women's role in 1950s:
Media portrayed women in domestic roles, but there was a large increase in women entering the workforce.
How did American youth handle conformity in the 1950s?
Many youth accepted social norms portrayed in the media. "Greasers" rebelled against these social norms.
What was the Gilded Age?
Period when corruption existed in society but was overshadowed by the wealth of the period.
What was the "Gospel of Wealth"?
Belief that the wealthy are "chosen by God" to be successful & were therefore responsible to look out for the less fortunate.
Made steel lighter, more flexible, rust resistant metal.
Complete control of a product or service
What is "Vertical Integration"?
A process by which a company buys out all of the supplies.
What is "Horizontal Consolidation"?
A process by which a company buys out or merges with all competing companies.
What industry or process did these men monopolize, revolutionize or develop?
Andrew Carnegie: STEEL
John Rockefeller: OIL
Cornelius Vanderbilt: RAILROADS
J.P. Morgan: FINANCES
Henry Ford: ASSEMBLY LINE
What was a Labor Union and what was its purpose during the Gilded Age?
The purpose of a Labor Union was "strength in numbers". Attempted to gain better working conditions & pay.
Who were the Knights of Labor?
Was the first union to accept workers of ALL races & gender. Pushed 8 hour work day, equal pay for women, accepted skilled & unskilled workers.
How did immigration impac America during the Gilded Age?
Immigrants increased the population by 20 million.
- Urban population increased
- Increased the need for a higher standard of living
Movement to ensure that Native- born Americans received better treatment than immigrants.
Who was Jane Addams?
A SOCIAL REFORMER
- Women's suffrage supporter
- "Mother of Social Reform"
What was the "Social Gospel" movement?
A social reform movement that sought to fix social problems in the name of Jesus.
What were dome of the problems that existed in the U.S that gave the "Gilded Age" its name?
1. Housing shortages
3. Clean Water
4. Waste & garbage removal was a challenge
5. Fires were very common
6. Crime rose with urbanization
What was America's stance on the war when it broke out?
U.S was neutral, but built up a military just in case.
What was the "America First Committee," and what did they belive?
Advocated for building up the military and saying that Europe's problems were not America's problems.
What were FDR's "Four Freedoms"?
1. Freedom of Speech & expression
2. Freedom to worship
3. Freedom from want
4. Freedom from Fear
What was the "Selective Service Act of 1940"?
First ever war draft for men. It expanded age gap for drafting men.
Was Peal Harbor truly America's first step in to war?
Pearl Harbor pushed America into the War.
Explain how Captain America reflected and encouraged the views of the American people during this period.
Captain American embodied the best of American & the American dream.
What were "Sentinels of Liberty," and what was their job?
It was a fan club for young Americans. Kids involved were encouraged to snitch on spies & traitors.
Exaggerated images or ideas that are used to help spread influence, usually to promote cause or point of view.
What is Urbanization?
The building up of cities. First time ever people are moving to urban areas.
Difference between Urban and Rural life?
Rural areas: were seen as poor & uneducated people (very religious)
Urban areas: wee crowded & sinful
What was prohibition?
Movement against alcohol.
Why did prohibition fail?
Many Americans, especially immigrants, did not believe that alcohol was a sin. The government didn't have enough money to enforce the law.
How did the 1920s affect women in America?
More independence, job opportunities, looking for more freedom & self reliance.
During the 1920s, how did the view of family structure change?
Children were no longer the "breadwinners", which helped create the 1st image of the modern American family.
What was the Harlem Renaissance & how did it affect African-American Culture?
Explosion of African culture through art. It made African culture famous & made it possible for many aspects of 20th Century American Culture to be created & grow.
What was the "Great Migration"?
African Americans moving North for better opportunities.
What happened on October 29, 1929, AKA Black Tuesday?
Stock Market Crashed.
What were the main factors that led to the Great Depression?
- Over production of goods
- Less demand for work
What was the "New Deal"?
Ensured that everyone living in the U.S will receive necessary things.
- Relief Stress
Did the "New Deal" end the depression?
What ended the Depression?
It was WW2.
What was the "Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire"?
There was a huge fire in a factory. There were no fire escapes and many people jumped to their death. Many people lost their lives, especially women. This helped people see the need for labor reforms.
Social movements trying to inform the public of an issue (usually within a group) in order to cause political change.
A period of widespread social activism & political reform across the U.S.
- Addressed problems of the Gilded Age.
What areas were people trying to reform?
Rights for women & children
Is the health, happiness & fortunes of all society.
What was achieved by progressives?
Prohibition of child labor
Work condition regulation
Compensation for injuries
Women can vote
Reduce working hours
The movement to gain women the right to vote.
Why did the U.S enter WW1?
Because of the "Zimmerman Note" from Germany asking Mexico for an alliance. Declared that Germany would engage in submarine warfare.
How were American soldiers different than Europe soldiers when they entered the war?
American troops entered the war feeling fresh & energetic, unlike Europeans who had been fighting for over 3 years.
What was Reconstruction?
It was a time period where they try to reconstruct the South and society, as led by Congress.
How did they South change during the Reconstruction?
- Removed Confederates from position of leadership
- Set up protection for freed slaves in the South
- Union Army sent to South to police areas
- Weakened by corruption
- Little support for the rebuilding of the Southern economy
What were the 13th, 14th & 15th Amendments?
13th: Freed all slaves in the U.S
14th: Gave citizenship to all those who were born in the USA or were naturalized in the USA
15th: Prevented discrimination in voting based on race, color or previous condition of servitude.
What was sharecropping?
Landowner provided land, seeds tools & lent money for expenses in exchange for a portion of the crop.
How was sharecropping used to trick African Americans?
Tricked them into signing a contract that would trap them in debt, so they would continue working as "legal slaves".
Why was the Reconstruction considered a failure?
It left the South poor, weak, crated conditions for segregation, increased racism & discrimination.
What were the Jim Crow laws?
States & local laws that enforced racial segregation in the South & supported the oppression of African Americans.
What was the outcome of the "Plessy Vs Ferguson" trial?
This Supreme Court case upheld state laws that institutionalized segregation in the South. Created the doctrine of "separate but equal".
How did this affect Freedom in the South?
It did bring an end to slavery, but created conditions for segregation and increased racism.
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