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Tarloff -- Semester 1 exam review
Terms in this set (48)
positive charge, located in the nucleus, responsible for mass of an atom
determines the atomic number
negative charge, located in energy levels orbiting the nucleus of an atom
no charge, located in the nucleus, responsible for mass of an atom
equal to the atomic number + neutrons
what is the overall charge on an atom
What is the overall charge on the nucleus of an atom
When the number of neutrons and mass number differ, but the atomic number and protons remains the same.
When an atom gains or loses electrons in order to become chemically stable and nonreactive
electrons in the outermost energy levels, responsible for an atoms reactivity.
horizontal rows (there are 7), correspond to energy level
vertical columns (there are 18), correspond to valence electrons (except groups 13-18 have 3-8 val e-'s
bond between a metal and non metal
bond between 2 or more non metals
Type of bond that holds NO2 together
Type of bond that holds MgCl2 together
molecules that contain 2 of the same atom bonded together (i.e. HOFBrINCl)
metal ions, lose electrons, positive charge
non metal ions, gain electrons, negative charge
group 1, lose 1 electron, +1 charge as ions
alkaline earth metals
group 2, lose 2 electrons, +2 charge as ions
group 17, gain 1 electron, -1 charge as ions
do not tend to form ions or bond because they already have completely full outer energy levels and are chemically nonreactive.
What happens in a chemical reaction
atoms break apart in the reactants and rearrange into new substances in the products.
Chemical reactions that NEED energy in order to occur. (energy in the reactants)
Chemical reactions that have too much energy and release it as a result of the reaction (energy in the products)
Law of Mass Conservation
Matter is never created or destroyed it just changes form. Which means what atoms you have in the reactants you MUST also have in the products and vice versa.
According to the law of mass conservation, what happens when sugar dissolves in water?
The total mass remains the same. The sugar is only dissolves (physical change) in the water so the mass is a total of both of them.
Sugar water is an example of a
homogeneous mixture with a solute dissolved into a solvent.
Balance: B + O2 --> Al2O3
4B + 3O2 --> 2(B2O3)
Balance: C2H6 + O2 --> CO2 + H2O
1C2H6 + 1O2 --> 2CO2 + 1H2O
What is the correct chemical equation for the following: Magnesium metal reacts with Aluminum oxide in a single replacement reaction.
3Mg + 1Al2O3 --> 2Al + 3MgO
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
If something is matter it is either
a pure substance or a mixture
Pure substances are
either elements or compounds, always have definite chemical and physical properties (can write a chemical formula for them).
either homogeneous or heterogeneous
only made up of 1 type of atom.
made up of 2 or more different types of atoms
composed of a solute dissolved into a solvent. Does not display the Tyndall effect, looks the same throughout
looks noticeably different, does display the Tyndall effect.
the relationship between mass and volume
a measure of the amount of matter ("stuff") in an object. (g)
the amount of space an object takes up (mL)
According to the law of mass conservation, if there are 200 grams of a reactant, how many total grams of product should you have?
Signs of a chemical reaction
color change, formation of a precipitate, production of a gas, odor, formation of a new substance.
a property of matter (either chemical or physical) that is used to help identify what exactly a substance is.
a characteristic of a substance that does not change what the substance is.
changes the identity of a substance on a molecular level
Recommended textbook explanations
Foundations of Physical Science (Florida Edition)
Tom C. Hsu
Chemistry: Matter & Change, Florida
Sarquis, J., Sarquis, M.
Chemistry Matter and Change
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