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World History/ Geography Midterm Study
Terms in this set (79)
New Science relied on this for its authority and teachings?
experiments & observation
The new way of thinking about the natural world based on careful observation and willingness to question?
scientific revolution & enlightenment
A step-by-step process of discovering scientific facts is called the...
Whose theory was considered revolutionary because it contradicted the teachings of classical thinkers?
Copernicus challenged the traditional European view of the universe by theorizing that...
Who explained the Law of Universal Gravitation?
A new intellectual movement that stress reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems?
How did the Scientific Revolution lead to the Enlightenment?
People began to question more and not just assume something they were told was a fact. They began to question the authority and accuracy of the church.
Who wrote that people have a natural right to overthrow a government a government that violates their rights?
Who disagreed with Locke in regard to a legitimate government comes from the consent of the governed people?
What were John Locke's 3 natural rights that people had?
land, liberty, property
What were Hobbes and Rousseau beliefs on people and government?
Hobbes- people are born bad, strong gov't
Rousseau- positive view, no gov't
Which enlightenment thinker believed in the idea of separation of powers?
In her book a Vindication of the Rights of Women, Mary Wollstonecraft argued that women and men should have equal...
Which philosophes ideas greatly impacted the criminal justice system in places such as Europe and North America?
Why did Enlightenment thinkers often faced censorship?
contradicted the church
What rules discoverable by reason did Enlightenment thinkers try to apply to the study of human behavior and society?
An enlightenment despot was a ruler who...
The Russian monarch who expanded her/his empire and instituted reforms by studying the philosophes was...
Catherine the Great
The Austrian monarch supported religious freedom was who?
What theory challenged the heliocentric theory?
Which Enlightenment thinker believed in free speech and freedom of religion?
In which government systems would people have the most opportunity to participate in the government?
How is the power acquired in a presidential democracy?
In a dictatorship, how is power most likely acquired?
In what type of government does the ruler inherit their power?
A government system in which the national government shares powers with the state governments is...
The social and political system in use in France in the 1770s...
The Queen of France who spent so much money that she increased the French debt was who?
Who paid the majority of the taxes in France prior to the revolution?
About what percentage of Frances population belonged to the third estate?
What class began the French Revolution?
What was the main goal of the French Revolution?
establish a democracy
What was the slogan of the Revolution?
equality, liberty, fraternity
What ideals most influenced the leaders of the French Revolution?
What happened July 14th, Bastille Day that became the symbol of the French Revolution?
citizens stormed prison for weapons
What did the women of Paris originally march to Versailles in search of, they returned with king and queen?
This person claimed it was possible to build a "republic of virtue" by means of what became known as the reign of terror...
During the reign of terror, who was safe from the guillotine?
no one :o
The term used to describe the takeover of France by Napoleon in a sudden seizure of power?
Why did French voters support Napoleon's decision to appoint himself emperor?
good military background
This established a new relationship between church and state; the government recognized the influence of the Church, but rejected Church control in national affairs?
What are some things Napoleon was able to accomplish during peacetime?
roads, education, banking system, equal tax system, & stability of Europe
What did Napoleon set up to prevent trade between Great Britain and the other European nations?
What strategy did Czar Alexander I use to defeat Napoleon in Russia?
The scorched earth policy
What does the Hundred Days refer to?
Napoleon's last attempt at power
Where was Napoleon's last major defeat that ended his Hundred Days?
Waterloo (The Battle of Waterloo)
What were the series of meetings to set up policies to achieve security and peace in Europe?
the congress of vienna
Who was the main person responsible for the accomplishments of the Congress of Vienna?
Metternich's principle advocating the restoration of royal authority was called what?
What were some of the main goals of the Congress of Vienna?
restore stability to Europe
What was the agreement by Britain, Russian, Austria, Prussia, and France to come to one another's aid if there is a threat of peace from revolution or invasion?
concert of Europe
what are the differences between market, traditional, command, and mixed economies?
market-private ownership exists, competition, social classes, minimal gov't interference, based on supply and demand
traditional-based on generation before them, usually old school farming, goods used for own purpose, stable but no growth
command-no private ownership, gov't owns and controls everything, no social classes, no individual freedoms, based on cooperation(work for common good)
mixed-perfect world, everyone works together for common good, no need for competition, the whole should own and operate the means of production
If a major oil producing country imposed an oil embargo on the US, how would the US economy be affected?
the price would go up (supply and demand)
What economic system did Karl Marx believe was best for society?
Which of the types of economies is most likely to foster competition between business firms?
What are the goals of a mixed economy?
to establish a utopian-like society and eliminate social classes
What was the industrial revolution?
when manual labor was replaced by machines
What were the three factors of production required to drive the industrial revolution?
land, labor, capital
What was the main cause of the process of urbanization that occurred in the 19th-century Britain and elsewhere in Western Europe?
What did Britain do in order to keep industrial secrets from the world?
forbade craftsmen/inventors from leaving the country
What is the laissez- faire policy?
A policy that let owners of industry set working conditions without government interference
What is the name for voluntary associations of workers seeking labor reforms?
How did the Industrial Revolution shift the world balance of power?
It increased competition between industrialized nations and poverty in less developed nations.
What topics that we have discussed this semester could we apply to social darwinism?
How did industrialization affect urbanization?
It accelerated it. specifically by allowing buildings to built quicker, cheaper, and bringing in people to fill those buildings from the country and other countries.
What were some of the effects of rapid urbanization in cities?
Industrialization and Immigration
What is the economic and political domination of a strong nation over other weaker nations?
In terms of economics, what was one underlying cause of imperialism?
What happened as a result of the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885?
Europeans divided Africa into colonies without consulting African leaders
Which European country in the late 19th century controlled so many colonies around the
World that it was said the "sun never set" on its flag?
The Boxer Rebellion was an attempt to remove European influence in which foreign country?
With which nation did Japan sign the Treaty of Kanagawa, opening ports for trade?
What were regions of China in which Britain, France, Germany, Japan and Russia
dominated trade and investment?
Spheres of influence
Who united southern Italy and by leading the red shirts?
What are some key characteristics nationalism?
a shared culture
What force tore apart century old empires, unified countries, and was opposed by conservatives?
What was the significance of Bloody Sunday?
It improved the welfare of common people and the welfare of factory workers. It also sparked many unions. Also another major way the Bloody Sunday is significant is that it allowed the Russian civilians to have more freedom like freedom of speech because of the October Manifesto. Voting rights.
What were the 2 largest German nation-states in 1815 and which one wanted to unify them together?
Prussia & Austria
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