COM 102 Chapter 1-4 (Exam 1)
COM 102 Summer Session - Exam 1, containing chapters 1-4. Professor Jenny Farell @ UNLV
Terms in this set (97)
Three Communication Models
Linear Model (one way)
Interactive Model (Two way)
Transactional Model (multi way)
Sender to receiver
Contains a message, a channel, and noise
Contains all the traits of linear model along with:
Feedback & Fields of Experience
Communication is multidirectional. Each participant equally influences the communication behavior of the other participants
No senders or receivers - all parties constantly exchange messages and feedback creating meanings
Criteria of competent communication (3)
Appropriateness: the degree to which your communication matches the expectations of communication
Effectiveness: the ability to use communication to accomplish interpersonal communication goals
Ethics: set of standards regarding moral behavior that drive communication choices.
High self monitors:
people who are highly sensitive to appropriateness and adapt their communication; "Read a room"
Low self monitors:
people who communicate the same way regardless of the situation.
Elements of Interpersonal Communication
Dynamic: constantly in motion, changing over time
Transactional: both parties contribute meaning
Dyadic: between two people, or involves pairs of people
Impact Creating: it's relevant, it matters; changes peoples' thoughts, emotions, behaviors, etc.
communication about communication
Three goals of IPC
desires that you have to present yourself in certain ways to that others perceive you as being a particular type of person
practical aims you want to achieve or tasks you want to accomplish through a particular interpersonal encounter
building, maintaining, or terminating bonds with others
personal relationships with people; interest in forming bonds, with honesty & kindness; distance between us becomes "thinner"
when we focus on our differences; people are seen as objects, just there for our use and exploitation; distance between us becomes "thicker"
convo involving pairs of people or dyads.
conversation involving yourself; talking to yourself, having mental conversation
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
1) Self-actualization: by articulating our unique abilities and giving our best in our work, family and personal life.
2) Self-esteem: the desire to have others' respect and admiration.
3) Love and Belonging/Social Needs: forming satisfying and healthy emotional bonds with friends, family, gf's/bf's.
4) Safety: job stability and protection from violence.
5) Physiological/Physical: water, sleep, etc
components of self
1) Self-awareness: ability to step outside of yourself; view yourself as a unique person
2) Self-concept: overall perception of who you are
3) Self-esteem: overall value, positive or negative, that we assign to ourselves.
broadly and inclusively, as an established, coherent set of beliefs, attitudes, values and practices shared by a large group of people
your self-esteem is determined by how you compare to two mental standards; the bigger difference between ought self (the person other people want you to be) & ideal self (who you want to be), the lower the self-esteem.
comparing your traits, etc., with other people. Trying to figure out your place, knowing what's normal.
how our self-concept is influenced by what people believe others think of us.
predictions about future interactions that lead us to behave in ways that ensure the interaction unfolds, as we predicted.
attachment styles influenced by family
secure attachment, preoccupied attachment, dismissive attachment, fearful attachment
Level of attachment anxiety
how much you fear rejection
Level of attachment avoidance
how much you avoid relationships
individuals are low on both anxiety and avoidance: they're comfortable with intimacy and seek close ties with others. Warm/supportive relationship.
adults are high in anxiety and low in avoidance: they desire closeness, but are plagued with their fear of rejection. Sexual contact to satisfy their compulsive need to be loved.
low in anxiety, but high avoidance. they view close relationships as comparatively unimportant, instead prizing and prioritizing self-reliance. Relationship crises evoke hasty exists. Casual sexual relationships
adults are high in both attachment anxiety and avoidance. They fear rejections and tend to shun relationships, preferring to avoid the pain they believe in an inevitable part of intimacy
you were taught that individual goals are more important than group or societal goals.
you likely were taught the importance of belonging to groups or "collectives" that look after you in exchange for your loyalty.
"public self" that you want others to see and know. Face actively create and present it through your communication.
a public self designed to conceal your private self. Can be dramatic or subtle.
provokes feelings of shame, humiliation and sadness—embarrassment when info is revealed that contradicts our face.
we attempt to save face by laughing it off, explaining it, confront it, etc.
Face threatening acts
when embarrassing things arise or things happen that makes us "lose face"
Five ways to improve your online self-presentation, including warranting value
1. Project a positive image (screen names, email address).
2. Make wise choices in the words/image you use.
3. Be wary of the info that contradicts your self image (other people's posts)
4. Routinely conduct web searches on yourself
5. Keep interview test in mind
Warranting value: the degree to which the information is supported by other people and outside evidence.
revealed private information about ourselves to others
interpersonal process model of intimacy
the closeness we feel towards others in our relationships is created through two things: Self-disclosure and responsiveness of listeners to disclosure.
social penetration theory
the idea that revealing the self to others involves peeling back or penetrating layers like an onion
Shows more aspects of self are open to share with others and some remain hidden.
1. Quadrant I: Public Area—Aspects of your self that you and others are aware of. Includes everything you openly disclose (music, moral values, religious beliefs)
2. Quadrant II: Blind Area—Facets of your self that are readily apparent to others through your interpersonal communication but you're not aware of. (Strengths that you may not see in yourself)
3. Quadrant III: Hidden Area—Parts of your self that you're aware of but that you hide from most others. These include destructive thoughts, impulses, fantasies, and disturbing life experiences that don't fit comfortably with your public self.
4. Quadrant IV: Unknown Area—Aspects of your self that you and others aren't aware of, such as unconscious motives and impulses that strongly influence your interpersonal communication and relationships.
That awful moment when you wonder who else might be reading the innermost thoughts you just revealed in an email or a text message to a friend.
the three steps of perception
Selection, organizing and Interpreting
involves focusing on certain stimuli in our environment (focusing on something)
structure the info into a coherent pattern inside your mind
structuring the info you've selected into a chronological sequence that matches how you experienced the order of events.
assigning meaning to that information.
we make sense of others' communication by comparing it to what we already know
the degree to which particular people or aspects of their communication attract our attention; stuff that grabs our attention.
Interpersonal communication is salient under 3 conditions:
- visually and audibly stimulation fashion (yelling, waving)
- If our goals/expectations lead us to view it as significant.
- Things that deviate from our expectations.
creating explanations for others' comments or behaviors; they are our answers to the "why" questions we ask everyday
presume that a person's communication or behavior stems from internal causes, like personality or character. (My boyfriend didn't respond to my text so he thinks I'm boring)
hold that a person's communication is caused by factors unrelated to personal qualities. (My boyfriend didn't respond to my text because he's busy)
Fundamental Attribution Error:
the tendency to attribute others' behavior solely to internal causes (the kind of person they are) rather than the social or environmental forces affecting them; when you think its internal, but its actually external.
the tendency of people to make external attributions regarding their own behaviors (usually negative) - "Failed that test because teacher sux"
tendency where we typically take credit for the success by making an internal attribution. (usually positive) - "Friend let me borrow her car cause I'm charming and convinced her"
Uncertainty Reduction Theory
when meeting people we aim to reduce uncertainty and explain and predict him/her.
by asking a third party questions about someone you're interested in.
starting a direct interaction with the person you're interested in.
how gender/sex affects perception
Cerebral cortex differences
-Men: time/speed perception, mentally rotating 3D figures
-Women: spatial relationships, identify emotions, language skills
o We are socialized to perceive sex/gender differences; this creates social norms and stereotypes (negative)
Look for solutions, offer advice, and try to solve/resolve
offer emotional support, listen rather than solve.
mental pictures of who people are and how we feel about them
a general sense of a person that's either positive or negative.
when you have more positive gestalts than negative.
we place emphasis on the negative info that we learn about others; it's salient, and it sticks to you
positively interpret people with whom we have positive gestalts (favoritism)
negatively interpret people with whom we have negative gestalts.
Look for solutions, offer advice, and try to solve/resolve
offer emotional support, listen rather than solve.
comparing positive and negative thing about someone to calculate an overall impression over time.
First impression often matter more than other/later impression.
Big Five personality traits (OCEAN)
Agreeableness (easy going/goes with the flow),
Neuroticism (thinking negatively about yourself)
implicit personality theories:
personal beliefs about different types of personalities and the ways in which traits cluster together; another way to reduce uncertainty about others.
an intense reaction that controls how we interpret and respond to an event.
5 Key Features of Emotions
- It's reactive; triggered by our perception of outside events
-Emotion involves physiological arousal in the form of increased heart rate, blood pressure and adrenaline release
-Requires awareness/labeling of that emotion.
-Governed by pre-existing norms (when/where its okay to cry or yell, or etc).
-reflected outward in your verbal and nonverbal displays, in the form of word choices (verbal), and facial gestures, etc. (nonverbal) displays, called emotional management.
when we talk about our emotional experiences with others.
when the experience of the same emotion rapidly spread from one to others.
emotions that involve unique and consistent behavioral displays across cultures, with high intensity counterparts.
an event may trigger two or more primary emotions simultaneously, resulting in an experience.
short-term emotional reactions to events that generate only limited arousal; they typically do not trigger attempts to manage their experience or expressions.
low-intensity states—such as boredom, contentment, grouchiness or serenity—that are not caused by particular events and typically last longer than feelings, or emotions.
the six primary emotions
surprise, joy, disgust, anger, fear, and sadness.
what makes up jealousy
Sadness, anger, fear
Ekman and Friesen's unwritten codes that govern the ways in which people manage and express their emotions.
- Intensification: when you exaggerate an emotion
- De-intensification: when you downplay an emotion (anger, rejection)
-Simulation: when you're acting emotional/faking emotions (faking an orgasm)
-Inhibition: when you're acting emotionless (you don't want people to know)
-Masking: hiding a true emotion with another
The ability to interpret your own and others' emotions accurately and us this to communicate effectively.
stages of grief
1. Denial: denying it's even happening; "it's not real"
2. Anger: you're angry at the reason for loss, angry at yourself, the situation, etc
3. Bargaining: negotiation; faith comes into play.
4. Depression: period of intense sadness (different from chronic depression)
5. Acceptance: life goes on...
the intense sadness that follows a substantial loss. (death, loss of job, or relationship)
part of emotional intelligence (EQ), and is the ability to control emotional experiences when you have them
EQ - Before you experience emotion- Reappraisal:
actively changing how you think about situations so their emotional impact is changed; thinking positive about a negative situation. (Good strategy but the hardest)
EQ - After you experience them:
inhibiting thoughts, arousal and outward displays of emotion; do this when you have an emotion that you don't want to have
EQ- After you experience them:
allowing emotions to dominate us and explosively expressing them.
4 ways to prevent unwanted emotions
1. Encounter avoidance: staying away from ppl, places, things that make you feel emotions that you aren't comfortable with
2. Encounter structuring: avoiding topics...
3. Attention focus: only pay attention to specific things (think tunnel vision).
4. Deactivation: desensitizing yourself to emotions (problematic because emotion is there for a reason.)
the two factors of online communication that often contribute to lack of empathy.
Asynchronous nature: lag time in sending/receiving messages
Invisibility: where's the person @??