Terms in this set (100)
Volcanic activity in the western US is related to
hotspot, subduction, continental extension
the greatest amount (amplitude) of ground motion, and therefore the greatest amount of damage, is a earthquake caused by the:
which of the focal mechanisms best represents earthquakes on the San Andreas fault?
Black top left
At mid ocean ridge spreading plate boundaries faulting is of the ______ type
Crater lake, oregon, is a :
caldera on a stratovolcano
the focal mechanism for an earthquake is determined by the:
p wave polarity at many seismograph stations
the strength of rock under different stresses (compression, extension, shearing) means that the largest (great) earthquakes occur in which geological environment?
the deadliest earthquake in history was in:
China in 1556
Volcanoes with long repose times (hundreds to thousands of years) typically have smaller eruptions than volcanoes with short repose times
Worldwide, appx how many active volcanoes are there?
the fault shown in the block diagram above is a:
normal right lateral oblique slip
compared to solid rock...in sand, mud, gravel and land fill:
both B and C (seismic waves travel slower and are of larger amplitude) and (There is liquefaction and a loss of mechanical strength)
the order, first arrival to last arrival, in which seismic station will detect seismic waves from an earthquake is
P, S, love, Rayleigh
body waves are produced by:
both shallow and deep focus earthquakes
rock has variable strength with different series. The strength of rock, from strongest to weakest, with stress in the order:
compression, shearing, extension
which of the focal mechanisms above best represents the m7.0 Haiti earthquake that occurred in january 2010
black on top left
in an average year there is one great, m8.0 or larger, quake globally. in terms of the annual global energy budget of all earthquakes, this one great earthquake releases:
more energy than all of the earthquakes per year that are smaller than M8
At which type of plate boundary is old plate destroyed?
which is the correct version of this well-known quotation?
"Civilization exists by geological consent, subject to change without notice"
air-fall ash can be hazardous hundreds of kilometers from an erupting volcano because it will :
contaminate water supplies and disrupt transportation +communication
A lahar is a
very dense and mobile mixture of rock and lava fragments with water
in 1986, 1700 people in Cameroon, West Africa, died as a result of a burt of ________ gas from the crater of a volcano
CO2 carbon dioxide
Plate tectonics is driven by earth's eternal heat. that heat is transformed form the deep interior to the surface of earth by:
As Simon Winchester points out, the speed and effectiveness of the federal government response to the 1906 San Fransisco earthquake disaster and the 2005 hurricane Katrina disaster was:
Much better in 1906 than 2005
the mantle of the earth is composed of
at the time of the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami there was a tsunami warning system for the indian ocean, but the system malfunctioned and gave no warning of the tsunami
the release of gas from the magma and the formation of gas bubbles is termed
sialic minerals are
light in color and relatively low in density
the 1993, 9 people were killed by a rain of blocks and bombs in a small eruption of a volcano in Colombia. which volcano?
Which was not a piece of evidence that Alfred Wenger used to argue the case for continental drift?
that ancient rocks are found in Africa and South America
the large 1980 Mt. St. Helens, 1991 Pinatubo, and 1995 Montserrat eruptions were all preceded by phreatic eruptions
an ancient lava flow has a magnetization direction that points to the north and into the ground at a high angle. this lava flow was erupted and crystalized at:
high northern magnitude during a time of normal magnetization
Wegeners continental drift hypothesis explains why
fossils of the same species
species are dissimilar
the 1991 eruption of mt pinatubo was
successfully predicted, and many lives were saved because the authorities acted on the prediction
the eruption that began in 1995 on the Caribbean island of Montserrat was triggered by
intrusion of basalt magma into magma chamber
the shallow part of the Cascadia subduction zone has produced very few earthquakes over the past 50 years. This is because
the fault plane between the two plates is completely locked
the eruption of mt. st. helens on may 18 1980 was triggered by
a moderate m5 earthquake beneath the volcano
in terms of the lethality of the 2010 Haiti and 2011 japan earthquakes,
the Haiti earthquake caused more fatalities because of the combination of very shallow focal depth, close proximity of the epicenter to a large population, and poor building construction
the san Andreas fault system:
developed about 25 million years ago when the east pacific rise began to be subducted and has since progressed
the 2011 japan earthquake
was a great m8.0 or larger and occurred on a megathrust between pacific and phillipine
the 1985 eruption of a volcano in Colombia produced a lahar that killed over 20,000 people. which volcano
Nevado del Ruiz
of the total energy released globally by earthquakes, what percentage is released by mid ocean ridge and transform fault earthquakes?
a m5.3 earthquake in Feb 2015 was reported by the NEIC as being on the southern mid atlantic ridge. the focal mechanism for this quake shows that it appeared on
an approximately N-S oriented spreading center segment of the MAR
In late 2004 a new eruption began at Mt. St. Helens. this eruption produced
eruption of a lava dome with occasional phreatic explosions
Mid ocean ridges account for _______ of the total volume of magma produced in the earth
a tsunami warning system was in place in the indian ocean before the Dec 2004 Great sumatra quake. but it malfunctioned and failed to detect the tsunami
melting of the mantle under the mid ocean ridges occurs because
raising mantle undergoes decompression melting
the most common composition of lava erupted from subduction zone volcanoes is
which focal mechanism in the diagram above best represents the 1905 san Fransisco quake?
black top left
consistent with their plate tectonic setting, the 1994 north ridge quake occurred on a strike slip fault and the 1995 Kobe earthquake occurred on a reverse, thrust fault
because of the seismic hazard from New Madrid Seismic zone earthquakes it is sensible to apply stringent California building codes to construction in Memphis, TN and St Louis MO.
In the new Madrid Seismic zone the recurrence interval for earthquakes the magnitude of the Dec 1811 event, which was M7.0, probably is of the order of _______ years
a very large, caldera forming eruptions at Yellowstone occurred 2.1 and 1.3 million years ago and 640,000 years ago. of these eruptions
one was a VEI 7 and two were VEI 8
In march and april 2016, and as gauged by the number of M2.5 or larger earthquakes recorded by the NEIC, what occurred with the seismicity in Oklahoma
the number of earthquakes decreased to monthly levels non seen since January and February, 2014
There is good archeological evidence to suggest that a number of cities in the Mediterranean reigon were destroyed in an earthquake storm at the end of the Bronze Age.
in the build up to a volcanic eruption there is an increase in the number and size of earthquakes and a transition from VT earthquakes to LP earthquakes
in a large earthquake which type of building construciton is most dangerous
the effects of the 1815 tambora eruption were
all of a to c
mitigation of the adverse consequences of a large earthquake can be achieved by
all of a to c
in march 2016 the USGS took the unprecedented step of issuing a one year seismic hazard forecast for the central and eastern US. In this forecast:
the chance of damaging earthquakes in oklahoma was assessed to be higher than the one in the new madrid seismic zone, but not as high as in California
the state of oklahoma released a new website about Oklahoma earthquakes on April 21 2015. according to this site and with regard to possible induced seismicity, what actions are the state taking?
will review "disposal well permits for proximity to faults, seismicity in the area and other factors" and will "evolve the application of the traffic light system" mitigation
over the last 400 million years of geological time there have been a number of mass extinction events an flood basalt eruptions.
all of the flood basalt eruptions have occurred very close in time to mass extinction events
BOTH A and C
in feburary and march 2016, the oklahoma corporation commission issued directives that required what actions with regard to fluid injection?
all injection wells in oklahoma were to reduce injection volume to 40% of the 2014 volume
in contrast to the death and destruction aspects of volcanic eruptions, what ate the benefits derived from volcanoes?
volcanic areas are important source of geothermal energy
volcanic degassing has made major contribution to the compensation of earths lithosphere
two weeks before the VEI 6 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in june 1991, what was the alert level
level 2: volcano restless, eruption uncertain
in comparison to the period 1972-2008, in 2015 the seismicity in oklahoma was :
higher, at least 10x the number of earthquakes have been recorded
the 1991 eruption of mt. pinatubo resulted in, for 2-3 years after the eruption
a significant but small decrease in average global surface tempertature
there is seismic activity on the moon. The largest recorded moonquakes are of about m5. Moonquakes of this size pose a significant risk to any future manned lunar outpost
the sulphur dioxide SO2 released to the atmosphere during explosive eruptions that are VEI 3 or larger
All of A to c
one component of volcano monitoring involves measuring the flux of gases coming out of a volcano. which volcanic gas is most useful in eruption prediction
the swaying of multistory buildings in an earthquake can cause them to collapse. this is best mitigated by
jim berkland makes a living out of earthquake prediction. his prediction is based on
A and B
of the 18 very high risk and 37 high risk volcanoes identified in the US,currently:
a few of the very high risk and none of the high risk volcanoes are monitored in real time
Iben brownings projection of a new madrid earthquake in december 1990 was wrong, but his wider projection of that there will be a major quake around december 1990 between 30N and 60N latitude was correct
a long running eruption of Kilauea volcano, HI started in 1983. whats been different about this eruption since 2008
there has been simultaneous activity at two different vents (summit and east rift zone)
an investor in a catastrophe bond is making a bet that a natural disaster of a particular size (m8.0) in a particular region (california) in a particular time (3 years) frame _____________
will not happen
Appx what percentage of m7 or larger earthquakes are preceded by foreshocks
for the 1883 Krakatu eruption and the 1815 Tambora eruption, ice cores from Greenland and the antarctic show that the effect of these eruptions on the atmosphere:
occurred in both the northern and southern hemisphere at all latitudes
Most fluid injection in Oklahoma takes place into the Arbuckle Formation because it has a very high porosity and permeability. The issue wit the arbuckle foundation is that
it is immediately above the basement and fluid injected into the Arbuckle can infiltrate the basement and induce earthquakes in the basement
the oklahoma geological survey statement released on 21 april 2015, says that is is _________ that the majority of recent earthquakes are triggered by the injection of produced water in disposable wells
since 1900, we humans have experienced the largest eruptions that can occur, but we have not experienced the largest earthquakes that can occur
Which earthquake was successfully predicted in China and hundreds of thousands of lives saved because of evacuation before the earthquake struck?
What, as of april 2016, did monitoring indicate was the state of Manua Loa Volcano, hawaii?
deformation and seismicity is at, or below background levels. the USGS alert level is green
in the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano, colombia, 23000 people died in a lahar in the town of amero this occurred because
a volcanic hazard map was drafted and did identify a lahar hazard, but when the eruption occurred local officials paid no attention to warnings from volcanologists and made no attempt to evacuate people from armero
the earthquake that produced the Meers fault scarp in southwestern oklahoma occurred about _______ years ago and had an estimated magnitude of _______
the "ultimate prediction dilemma" at Vesuvius is that
the italian authorities do have a vicil defense plan for evacuation, but it requires two weeks advance warning of an eruption and the best that volcanologists can do is a one or two day warning of certain eruptions
in 1985 the USGS made an official forecast that the park field segment of the san andreas fault would, with a 90% probability, produce a M5.5-6.0 quake between 1985 and 1993.. This forecast was
unsucessful because the earthquake occurred years after the forecast time window
If, in the nest revision of the national seismic hazard model, induced seismicity is included in the assessment of seismic hazard, what effect will it have on the building codes of Oklahoma
a major effect, building codes will be significantly strengthened to account for the large increase in assessed seismic hazard
since the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1994 north ridge quakes, how much has been spent on seismic retrofit of bridges in california
billions of dollars
the megacity with the highest risk index for natural hazard is
of the top ten worst natural disasters in the US since 1900, only three have occurred since 1940 and this has likely resulted in recent social and political complacency about natural hazards
seismicity in the new madrid region most likely occurs because
of motion on faults that bound an ancient basement risk
the successful prediction of an earthquake in China in the 1970s was made on the basis of
the US geological survey reassessment of the seismic hazard in oklahoma included seismicity and concluded that induced seismicity:
moderately increases the seismic hazard in the state
climate models show that ta hypothetical low latitude Yellowstone type VEI 8 super volcano eruption would result in
average land temperature being cooler by about 12 degrees C in the year after the eruption, followed by a decade long volcanic winter
on a particular fault a M8 quake occurs every 150 years. The same amount of energy would be released on the fault in 150 years if there was
a M5 earthquake every 2 days
that fluid injection into the ground could induce earthquakes was suggested by the _____________ experiment in the 1960s.
Rocky mountain arsenal
the 2009 m 6.3 L'Aquila, Italy quake was deadly and destructive. A seismic swarm preceded the earthquake and an official National Commission was convened to assess the seismic risk. What happened?
a commission successfully predicted the m6.3 quake, but local govt. officials took no action, resulting in the fatalities
the events portrayed in the movie docudrama Supervolcanoes are
realistic because a VEI 8 eruption at Yellowstone is highly probable and would cause the catastrophic effects portrayed in the movie.
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