64 terms

Abeka Physics Chapter 2

This set covers Abeka Physics Chapter 2: "Matter" (pages 19-31).
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matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
inertia
matter's unique property of resisting any change in its present state of motion
mass
term that represents how much inertia an object has, or how much force is required to change the object's state of motion
weight
term that represents the amount of force the earth's gravity exerts on an object's mass
density
the ratio of an object's mass to its volume
density = mass / volume
formula for density
specific gravity
term for the ratio of a given sample's density to a standard density
specific gravity = density of sample / density of standard
formula for specific gravity
molecule
a chemical combination of two or more atoms
elemental molecule
a molecule in which all the elements are the same
compound
a molecule in which the atoms are of different elements
pure substance
a substance containing only one kind of atom or molecule
mixture
a physical combination of two or more elements or compounds that can be easily separated
homogeneous mixture
term for a mixture in which the particles of each substance are uniformly distributed
heterogeneous mixture
term for a mixture that settles into layers of different particles or has large clumps of molecules
solid
state of matter with a definite shape and volume that consists of low-energy particles packed closely together
liquid
state of matter that has a definite volume but not a definite shape
gas
state of matter with high-enery particles that will spread to fill its container
plasma
state of matter that is a highly ionized gas and can only exist at very high temperatures
atom
tiny particle that is the basic building block of all matter
nucleus
collection of protons and neutrons in the center of an atom
protons
positively charged particles in an atom that give the atom its identity as an element
atomic number
The number of protons in a given element is called the ____ ____.
neutron
the largest atomic particle that has a neutral charge
mass number
the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
isotopes
term for atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers because of different numbers of neutrons
atomic mass
term for the general mass of an element, found by weighted average
atomic mass unit
unit that is one-twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom
electrons
negatively charged particles that move about the nucleus
ion
term for an atom whose charge is changed due to the loss or gain of electrons
anion
a negatively charged ion with more electrons than protons
cation
a positively charged ion with more protons than electrons
element
term for any substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into a simpler substance
periods
name for the horizontal rows of elements on the Periodic Table
groups
name for the vertical rows of elements on the Periodic Table
valence electrons
electrons in the outermost electron layer
E = mc^2
formula for energy
m = E / c^2
formula for mass
photons
tiny particles of light
mass defect
the difference between the expected mass of a nucleus and the actual mass, caused by strong nuclear force
subatomic particles
term for particles that are smaller than an atom
elementary particles
term for particles that have no components, no building blocks, and no smaller parts
quarks
the smaller particles that make up protons and neutrons
hadron
term for any substance believed to contain quarks
mesons
term for hadrons that contain two quarks
baryons
term for hadrons that contain three quarks
gluon
the massless particle that binds quarks together
leptons
term for particles such as electrons that do not contain any quarks
neutrino
particle of matter that has virtually no mass and travels at the speed of light
positron
term for a positively charged electron
gamma radiation
When a photon of ____ _______ passes through a heavy material, such as lead, the photon suddenly vanishes and a pair of oppositely charged particles appear.
pair production
the process in which a photon of gamma radiation passes through a heavy material, such as lead; the photon suddenly vanishes; and a pair of oppositely charged particles appear
electromagnetic radiation
term for any type of emitted energy
antiparticles
term for the electron and positron that denotes the fact that they have the same characteristics, but opposite charges
antimatter
term for particles like the positron, the antiproton, and the antineutron
annihilation
occurs when a positron and electron collide and convert their combined masses into a form of energy, either a low-energy photon or gamma radiation
orbital
term for a region of high likelihood for finding an electron as it travels around the nucleus
electron capture
process in which an orbiting electron is absorbed by a proton as it travels close to the nucleus
heavy atoms
term for atoms with a neutron to proton ratio greater than 1:1
radioactive decay
the process in which the quarks of an atom's protons and neutrons shift and release energy
alpha decay
process in which a nucleus emits a high-energy particle of two protons and two neutrons, causing a low amount of radiation
alpha particle
a high-energy particle of two protons and two neutrons; a reactive helium cation
beta decay
process that occurs when a neutron's down quark changes into an up quark, changing the neutron into a proton and forcing the emission of a high-energy electron
half-life
term for the time required for half a radioactive substance's mass to decay into something else