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ANS autonomic division

function of autonomic nervous system

-regulates body temperature
-coordinates the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, and reproductive functions

routine physiological adjustments to systems are made by the ANS operating at the _______ level.

-subconscious level

major ANS divisions are _____ and _____


ans is generally always ____

ie. -can activate or inhibit an organ
-releases neurotransmitter
- causes short term changes

what 4 regions of the brain effect ANS regulatory activites

-limbic system
-cerebral cortex

brain region which is headquarter of autonomic function


the ans like the sns has ___ and ____ neurons

-afferent and

in ANS afferent pathways originate in _____ _____.

-visceral receptors

in ANS efferent pathways connect to _____ _____

-visceral effector organs

visceral motor neurons in the CNS aka _____ ______

-preganglionic neurons

cell bodies of ganglionic neurons are located in ______ _____ outside the ____

-autonomic ganglia outside the CNS

preganglionic neurons in the CNS send axon (PG fibers) to synapse on ______ _____

-ganglionic neurons

sympathetic division and parasympathetic division

-2 major subdivisions in the ANS

ans division which is aka fight or flight system

-thoracolumbar (sympathetic) division

what forms the thoracolumbar divison

-visceral efferents from the thoracic and lumbar segments

sympathetic division or


division that generally stimulates tissue metabolism, increases alertness, and prepares the body to deal with emergencies

-sympathetic division

form the craniosacral (parasympathetic division)

-visceral efferents leaving the brain stem and sacral segments

rest and response system aka

-craniosacral (parasympathetic) division

division that conserves energy and promotes sedentary activities

-parasympathetic division

affects target organs via neurotransmitters

-sympathetic and parasympathetic division

craniosacral divison aka


detremine whether the response will be stimulatory or inhibitory

-membrane receptors

neurotransmitter effects

1) all preganglionic terminals release Ach, acetylcholine and are excitatory
2)all postganglionic parasympathetic terminals release ACh and effects may be excitatory or inhibitory
3)Most postganglionic sympathetic terminals release norepinenephrine (NE) and effects are usually excitatory

widely used neurotransmitter in the ANS


terminal that release ACh and are excitatory

-preganglionic terminals

terminal that release ACh and its effects may be excitatory or inhibitory

- all postganglionic parasympathetic terminals

terminals that release norepinenephrine and effects are usually excitatory

-postganglionic sympathetic terminals

when vital organs except sweat glands recieve instruction from both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers

-dual innervation

division that consists of preganglionic neurons between spinal cord segments T1 and L2, ganglionic neurons in ganglia near the vertebral column, and specialized neurons within the adrenal gland

-sympathetic division

sympathetic receptors include

-alpha and beta receptors

receptors sensitive to epinephrine and unresponsive to noreepinephrine and they may produce either inhibition or excitation

-beta receptors

chains that consist of about 3 cervical, 11-12 thoracic, 2-5 lumbar, and 4-5 sacral ganglia, and 1 coccygeal sympathetic ganglion in each chain

-sympathetic chains

every spinal nerve has a gray ramus that carries _____ _____ _____

-sympathetic postganglionic fibers

which 2 ganglia are the only ones that receive preganglionic fibers by white rami

-thoracic and
-superior lumbar ganglia

3 ganglia that receive preganglionic innervation from collateral fibers of sympathetic neurons

-inferior lumbar
-sacral chain ganglia

every spinal nerve receives a ____ _____ from a ganglion of the sympathetic chain

-gray ramus

signs of sympathetic stimulation

-an increase in cardiovascular and respiratory activities
-coughing reflex

coughing reflex or increase in cardio and resp activities are controlled by centers in

-medulla oblongata

ganglion that innervates the stomach, liver, pancreas, and spleen

-celiac ganglion

ganglion that innervates the small intestine and initial segments of the large intestine

-superior mesenteric ganglion

ganglion that innervates the kidney, bladder, sex organs, and terminal portions of the large intestine

-inferior mesenteric ganglion

some _________ _____ do not synapse as they pass through both the sympathetic chain and collateral ganglia

-preganglionic fibers

instead of synapsing as they pass through sympathetic chain and collateral ganglia some preganglionic fibers

-enter one of the adrenal glands and synapse on modified neurons within the adrenal medulla

how many adrenal medullae in sympathetic division


cells that synapse with modified neurons in adrenal medullae release ______ and _____ into the circulation causing ___ _____ ____ _____

-norepinephrine and
-prolonged sympathetic innervation effect

prolonged sympathetic innervation effect caused by release of

-norepinephrine and epinephrine

in a crisis the sympathetic division responds by an event called

-sympathetic activation

effects of crisis and sympathetic activation

-increased alertness
-feeling of energy and euphoria
-increased cardiovascular and respiratory activity
-general elevation in muscle tone
-mobilization of energy reserves

2 distinct results of stimulation of sympathetic division

1) release of norepinephrine or in some Ach at neuroeffector junctions
2) secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine into the general circulation

2 classes of sympathetic receptors which are stimulated by both norepinephrine and epinephrine

-alpha receptors
-beta receptors

alpha receptors

-which respond to stimulation by depolarizing the membrane

beta receptors

-which respond to stimulation by changing metabolic activity of cells





most postganglionic fibers release________ but few release ____


which fibers innervating sweat glands of the skin and blood vessels to skeletal muscles release ACh

-most postganglionic fibers

characteristics of sympathetic division

1) 2 segmentally arranged sympathetic chains lateral to the vertebral column, 3 collateral ganglia anterior to the vertebral column, and to adrenal medullae
2) preganglionic fibers are relatively short, except for those of the adrenal medullae, while postganglionic fibers are quite long
3) extensive divergence typically occurs, with a single preganglionic fiber synapsing with many ganglionic neurons in different ganglia
4) all preganglionic fibers release ACh, while most postganglionic fibers release NE
5) effector response depends on the nature and activity of the receptor

SD has __ segmentally arranged sympathetic chains lateral to the vertebral column, __ collateral ganglia anterior to the vertebral column and to adrenal medullae


sd fibers that are relatively short

-preganglionic fibers

sd fibers that are quite long

-postganglionic fibers

sd extensive __________ typically occurs with a single preganglionic fiber synapsing with many ganglionic neurons in different ganglia


sd all preganglionic fibers release


sd most postganglionic fibers release


sd effector response depends on the

-nature and activity of the receptor

which division consists of 1)preganglionic neurons in the brain stem and in sacral segments of the spinal cord and 2)ganglionic neurons in peripheral ganglia located within or immediately next to target organs

-parasympathetic division

div with preganglionic neurons in brain stem and in sacral seg. of spinal cord

-parasympathetic division

div with ganglionic neurons in peripheral ganglia located within or immediately next to target organs

-parasympathetic division

cranial nerves that carry parasympathetic components are

-III oculomotor,
-VII facial,
-IX glossopharyngeal, and
-X vagus

cranial nerves III, VII, IX, X

-carry parasympathetic components







division which generally promotes sedentary activities "rest and repose", conserve energy

-parasympathetic division

parasympathetic fibers in the occulomotor, facial and glosspharyngeal nerves help control ______ ______ in the head, and synapse in the

-visceral structures in the head
-ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia

fibers in the _____ nerve supply preganglionic parasympathetic innervation to intramural ganglia within structures in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity


psd preganglionic fibers leaving the sacral segments form ____ ____ innervate intramural ganglia in the kidney, bladder, latter parts of the large intestine, and sex organs

-pelvic nerves

effects produced by the parasympathetic division include 1-10 and these general functions center on relaxation, food processing and energy absorption

1) constriction
2) digestive gland secretion
3) hormone secretion for nutrient absorption
4) increased digestive tract activity
5) defecation activities
6) urination activities
7) respiratory passageway constriction
8) reduced heart rate
9) pupillary constriction
10) sexual arousal

functions of parasympathetic division center on

-relaxation, food processing, energy absorption

all the parasympathetic _________ and _____ fibers release ____ at synapses and neuroeffector junctions

-preganglionic and
-postganglionic fibers

effects of release of ACh by parasympathetic pre and post ganglionic fibers are

-short lived because of the actions of enzymes at the postsynaptic membrane and in the surrounding tissues

in psd 2 different types of ACh receptors are found in

-postsynaptic membranes

which 2 types of ACh receptors are found in post synaptic membranes within psd

1)nicotinic receptors
2)muscarinic receptors

nicotinic receptors

-located on ganglion cells of both division of the ANS and the neuromuscular junctions
-exposer to Ach causes excitation by opening membrane channels

muscarinic receptors

-located at neuroeffector junctions in the parasympathetic division and those cholinergic neuroeffector junctions in the sympathetic division.

stimulation of ________ receptors produces a longer lasting effect that does stimulation of nicotinic receptors


characteristics of parasympathetic division

1)includes visceral motor nuclei associated with cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X, and sacral segments s2-s4.
2) ganglionic neurons are located in terminal or intramural ganglia near or within target organs, respectively
3)in innervates areas serviced by cranial nerves and organs in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
4) all parasympathetic neurons are cholinergic.and are further subdivided as being either muscarinic or nicotinic receptors
5)effects are usually brief and restricted to specific sites

has widespread influence, reaching visceral and somatic structures

-sympathetic division

innervates only visceral structures serviced by cranial nerves or lying within the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity

-parasympathetic division

organs receive instructions from both divisions

-dual innervation

nerve plexuses include

-cardiac, pulmonary, espophageal, celiac, inferior memsenteric, hypogastric

in body cavities the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves intermingle to form a series of characteristic nerve


routine adjustments in physiological systems are made by the


functions of ANS

-regulates body temp. coordinates cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory , and reproductive functions
-adjusts internal water, electrolyte, nutrient, and dissolved-gas concentrations in body fluids outside your conscious awareness

ANS differs from SNS in the ______of the neurons connecting the CNS


in ANS axon of a visceral motor neuron within the CNS innervates a 2nd neuron located in a ______ ________.

-peripheral ganglion

2nd neuron in peripheral ganglion controls the

-peripheral effector

visceral motor neurons in CNS known as

-preganglionic neurons

axons of preganglionic neurons are called

-preganglionic fibers

preganglion neurons send their axons to synapse on

-ganglion neurons

cell bodies of ganglionic neurons are located

-outside the CNS in autonomic ganglia

preganglionic fibers carry impulses _____ from the ganglion


______ ____ innervate peripheral tissues and organs, such as cardiac and smooth muscle, adipose tissue and glands

-postganglionic fibers

sympathetic division consists of the following:

-preganglionic neurons located between segments T1 and l2 of the spinal cord
-2 types of ganglion neurons in ganglia near vertebral column
-specialized neurons in the interior of the adrenal gland

the two types of ganglion neurons in ganglia near the vertebral column in the sympathetic division are

1) sympathetic chain ganglia aka paravertebral or lateral ganglia
2) collateral ganglia aka prevertebral ganglia

prevertebral ganglia in Symp. Div. aka

-collateral ganglia

paravertebral ganglia in symp. div aka

-sympathetic ganglia, or lateral

in sympathetic div. _______ ______ are short because ganglia are close to the spinal cord

-preganglionic fibers

shows extensive divergence

-sympathetic division

sympathetic division of the ANS include two a)________ chains. three b) ______ganglia and two c) ______ ________

c)adrenal medullae

preganglion neurons in sympathetic div. release ACh at

-synapses with ganglionic neurons

effector response of the sympathetic div. depends on the

-function of the membrane receptor

general functions of the parasympathetic div.

-constriction of the pupils to restrict the amount of light entering the eyes, assists in focusing on nearby objects
-secretion by digestive glands, including salivary glands, gastic glands, pancreas, liver
-secretion of hormones that promote nutrient absorption by peripheral cells

-increases smooth muscle activity along the digestive tract
-stimulation and coordination of defecation
-contraction of the urinary bladder during urination
-constriction of respiratory passageways
-reduction in heart rate and force of contraction
-sexual arousal and stimulation of sexual glands in both sexes

functions of parasympathetic division

ganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division are situated in

-intramural ganglia or in ganglia closely associated with their target organs

parasym. div includes visceral motor nuclei in the brain stem associated with 4 cranial nerves


the parasympathetic div. innervates structures in the head and organs in the _________ and _______________ cavities


all parasympathetic neurons are


effects of the parasympathetic stimulation are usually _____ and restricted to _____ organs and sites


first neuron



-sympathetic division

terminal ganglia


collateral ganglia


sympathetic chain



-all preganglionic fibers


-suprarenal medulla

long postganglionic fiber



-preganglionic fibers to collateral ganglia


-sympathetic activation

visceral motors in the CNS

-send axons to synapse on peripherally located ganglionic neurons

splanchnic nerves

-include preganglionic fibers that go to collateral ganglia

which of the following ganglia belong to the sympathetic division of the ANS

-paravertebral ganglia

preganglionic fibers of the ANS sympathetic division originates in the

-thoracolumnbar spinal cord

the neurotransmitter at all synapses and neuroeffector junctions in the parasympathetic division of the ANS is


the large cells in the suprarenal medulla which resemble neurons in sympathetic ganglia

-release epinephrine and norephinephrine into blood capillaries

sympathetic preganglionic fibers are characterized as

-being short in lenght and myelinated

all preganglioinic autonomic fibers release ________ at their synaptic terminals and the effects are always


postganglionic fibers of autonomic neurons are usually


the white ramus communicans

-carries the preganglionic fibers into a nearby sympathetic chain ganglion

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