HDFS EXAM STUDY QUESTIONS
Terms in this set (150)
In a study of the behavioral adjustment of a group of children placed in foster care, the children were assessed once a year over a period of 10 years. This is an example of a ________ study.
Infants, like all people, are exposed to massive amounts of information so as not to be overwhelmed. Thus, children must _____ selectively.
Which term refers to an infant's various levels of wakeful behaviors, such as alertness, fussing and crying, and different levels of sleep?
________ is an example of a biological universal event that occurs at relatively the same time throughout all societies.
Who is considered the predominant theorist in cognitive development?
Piaget's theory of development assumed that all children pass through a series of _________ universal stages in a fixed order from birth to adolescence. These are __________.
four; sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
An infant who learns that smiling at his or her parents brings positive attention and therefore begins to smile more often is demonstrating what type of learning?
An observable trait- a trait that is actually seen- is labeled _______.
Baby Polly is usually a calm, happy baby when she is around her parents and siblings. When her parents take her to a family reunion, though, her behavior changes. Her face crinkles up in a frown, and she stares at unfamiliar people with suspicion. Baby Polly is demonstrating ____________.
What is the term for a developing child from 8 weeks after conception until birth?
What did Piaget call the process in which people understand a new experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking?
The information-processing approaches emphasize the types of _________ that people use when they problem solve.
In _______, development is ___________, with achievements at one level building on those of previous levels.
continuous change; gradual
The first and shortest stage of the prenatal period is called the ________ stage.
What is the process in which high-frequency sound waves scan the mother's womb to produce an image of the unborn baby, whose size and shape can then be assessed?
Dr. Who conducts research to compare the relationship between the use of instant messaging and academic performance. His results reveal that the more time adolescent students spend using instant messaging on their computers, the lower their academic performance. Dr. Who's findings suggest __________.
a negative correlation
Intelligence is a central human characteristic that differentiates humans from other species, and genetics plays a significant role in intelligence.
Which perspective contains the two major theories of Bronfenbrenner's bioecological approach and Vygotsky's sociocultural theory?
What is the leading cause of death of children under the age of 1 year?
Baby Lilly is watching her other siblings as she plays in her playpen. Her siblings begin to squabble and shove each other on the floor. Baby Lilly looks to her mother and notices that her mother is smiling as she watches the other siblings, so Baby Lilly begins to smile too. This is an example of __________
Mary is preparing to breastfeed her infant daughter, and, in the process, the baby's cheek brushes across her mother's blouse. The baby immediately turns its head toward Mary's chest in preparation for feeding. This is called the _____ reflex.
A form of learning in which voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences is called ________.
A child who does not seek proximity to the mother and, after she leaves the room, does not look distressed is exhibiting an _______.
avoidant attachment pattern
Erikson argued that each of his stages presents a ________ that the individual must resolve.
Eric has blue eyes. Because the gene for blue eyes is recessive, Eric must be_________ for that trait.
Erikson's approach to personality development suggests that an infant's early experiences are responsible for shaping whether or not that infant becomes a _________ individual later in life.
Neurons have a distinct ability to communicate with other cells using a cluster of fibers called _________.
A newborn who shows interest and surprise at first seeing a new toy but may not show interest after seeing the same toy several times is demonstrating what type of learning?
_____________ reduces the oxygen content and increases the carbon monoxide of the mother's blood. This quickly reduces the oxygen available for the fetus.
Synaptic pruning involves the removal of unused ________ in the brain.
Advocates of the ___________ perspective believe that much behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts of which a person has little awareness and over which a person has little control.
Who was one of the first to recognize, acknowledge the importance of, and help us understand the importance of culture's influence on development?
Older mothers are considerably more likely to give birth to children with ___________.
Name the substance that genes are composed of that determines the nature of each cell in the body and how it will function.
Broad, organized explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest are called ___________ and provide a framework for understanding the relationships among an unorganized set of facts or principles
An investigator typically devises two different conditions and then studies and compares the outcomes of the participants exposed to those two different conditions to see how behavior is affected. This is called an _______.
According to the textbook, which statement best reflects how many researchers view the nature-nurture question?
Both sides should be considered, because most behaviors fall somewhere in between
Baby Alexander makes minor changes in his schemas each time his environment provides him with a new experience. This is the process of __________.
If a developmental researcher is studying how traumatic events in childhood are remembered later in life, or how problem-solving skills change over the lifetime, in what developmental area is the researcher interested?
When does the greatest increase in height and weight occur?
during the first year of life
It is clear that the father's sperm does not determine the gender of the child.
Mark and Amanda just purchased some new toys for their 4 month old baby. As soon as they put the toys in the baby's crib, the baby immediately tried to put the toys in its mouth, then picked up and shook the toys. Piaget would say that this is an example of a _________.
Baby Sally's mother is dropping her off at preschool for the first time, and Sally's behavior changes from that of a calm, happy baby to that of a crying, cranky youngster who will not let go of her mother. Baby Sally is likely demonstrating _________.
Preterm infants are at a high risk of illness and death because __________.
they have not had time to fully develop as fetuses
Any differences in future development of monozygotic twins can be attributed only to ___________ factors.
Babies are typically able to crawl between ___________ months of age.
8 and 10
A researcher working with college-age football players in conducting a longitudinal study to examine an athlete's decline in on-the-field performance as the athlete ages. What type of development would the researcher most likely be studying?
What is the type of research in which developmentalists examine simultaneously the amount of computer use and its impact on a population of 4 year olds, 6 year olds, and 8 year olds at the same point in time?
People who lived in New York City during the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center experienced shared challenges due to the attack are called ________.
Which of the following best describes the "age of viability," or the point at which an infant can survive prematurely?
about 22 weeks
Julian and his friends enjoy taking weekend road trips exploring the hiking trails, cultural offerings, and historical sites outside their college campus. While Same is charged with making the grocery list and Stanton procures needed supplies, Julian takes the lead on mapping the travel, navigating the traffic, and deciding how best to navigate the hiking trails. According to Gardner, Julian demonstrates signs of _________ intelligence.
Gender, the sense of being male or female, is well established by the time children are _________.
Meredith is a 17-year old adolescent female who weighs approximately 82 pounds and is gaunt and frail, with a skeletal appearance. Whenever she looks at herself in the mirror, she thinks she is disgustingly fat. Meredith is suffering from _____________.
What is Vygotsky's term for the level at which a child can almost, but not quite, understand or perform a task?
zone of proximal development
What is one significant reason for the advances in fine motor skills in children 6 to 8 years old?
The amount of myelin in the brain increases to protect, insulate, and surround the nerve cells, raising the speed at which electrical impulses travel between neurons
Compared to less popular children, popular children are more likely to _________.
read others' nonverbal behavior and understand others' emotional experiences
For a child to remember a piece of information, _________ processes must function properly.
Young people (ages 10-24) make up a smaller percentage of the population in developing countries
Groups of 2 to 12 people whose members have frequent social interactions with one another are called __________.
The phenomenon known as the digital divide is ____________.
the challenge involving socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity, in which poorer adolescents and members of minority groups have less access to computers than do more affluent adolescents
The part of the brain that allows people to think, evaluate, and make complex judgments in a uniquely human way is called the __________.
Which cognitive ability helps adolescents think introspectively and self-consciously?
Adrienne is a 16 year old girl who is searching for her identity. Which of the following would be an example of the search for her self-concept?
She would have a broader view of herself and be able to see various aspects of herself simultaneously
Girls are more likely to be concerned about the faithfulness of their friends because of their friendships are more likely based on
What is the term for a learning disability marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and generally a great deal of inappropriate activity?
According to Erikson, from roughly ages 6 to 12, children go through the period characterized by efforts to meet the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and the other complexities of the modern world. This stage is called _________.
industry versus inferiority
Meredith's 5 year old friends at the playground are running around from the rides to the slides, but Meredith's mother has told her she had to stay on the swings and not move elsewhere in the playground. When Meredith complains that the other children are allowed to play where they want, her mother tells her to stay on the swings, "because I said so." This is an example of ___________ parenting.
Who is most at risk for substance use?
Emily, who went through puberty early, and hides a lot of things from her parents.
Bandura's research indicates that when children watch adults modeling aggressive behavior with the Bobo doll, they are likely to ________.
be as aggressive as or more aggressive than the adults are
Who is often overlooked in gene-environment relations?
According to psychologist Emmy Werner, young children who are considered resilient have ____________.
affectionate, easygoing, and good natured temperaments
Which of the following activities is considered a gross motor activity?
Warren is a 16 year old male who recently started to give away important possessions, stopped eating, and demonstrated general depression by being lethargic and uncommunicative. Warren may be demonstrating a warning sign of__________.
According to Piaget, what is the key aspect of preoperational thought?
The improvement in memory that occurs during the preschool years may also be associated with myelination of the ___________.
What is an example of an internal asset for youth in developing countries?
The average age when girls begin their growth spurt is ______ years, whereas boys tend to begin their growth spurt around age __________.
Pubertal development is influence by both environmental and biological factors.
Neuroscientists have discovered growth spurts in the brains of children who are __________ years of age, a time associated with the development of language abilities.
1 and 1/2 to 2
According to James Marcia, the status of adolescents who may have explored various identity alternatives to some degree but have not yet committed themselves is called
What is the term for the ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical change?
How many school-age children are labeled with a learning disability?
1 in 10
Which of the following most likely contributes to the high level of accidents in the preschool age group?
preschooler's high level of physical activity, curiosity, lack of judgment
Which developmental psychologist believed that cognitive development is a result of social interactions in which children learn through guided participation and working with mentors to solve problems?
Because the rate of Alex's growth during his preschool years is _____________ than during infancy, Alex needs ___________ food to maintain his growth.
What is an example of a passive gene-environment correlation?
a parent passes on genes predisposing their child to be a good reader, and the child's home also has a lot of books
Two boys, ages 3 and 4, are playing with cars, and both boys want the bigger red car. As the first boy reaches for the red car, the second boy strikes him, knocking it out of his hand and taking the red car for himself. This is an example of _________ aggression.
The preschool years largely encompass what Erikson called the ___________ stage
initiative versus guilt
Differences between undersocialized and socialized delinquents include which of the following?
undersocialized delinquents participate in serious crimes, while socialized delinquents engage in petty crimes
Madeline is working to teach her 4 year old daughter, Elize, how to count. She places 10 buttons in one row with very little space between the buttons and 8 buttons in another row with more space between the buttons; therefore, the second row is longer than the first. Then Madeline asks her daughter which row has more buttons. Eliza chooses the second row, even though she knows that 10 is more than 8. What is this an example of?
Tim is 14 years old, and is extremely upset about the fact that someone made fun of him in class. Tim is most likely to seek support from
Which of the following adolescents is least likely to develop an eating disorder?
one who matured later than her peers
Five-year-old Wendel is new to his kindergarten classroom. His teacher uses open, friendly questions to build rapport with him. His teacher asks him what he is good at and what he likes. Wendel responds, "I can run fast" and "I like to eat pizza." Wendel's responses are examples of his ___________.
Six year old Yoko's description of her friend Gretchen is most likely to include which adjective?
Which of the following is the most likely reason for adolescent impulsivity and risky behaviors?
the immaturity of the adolescent prefrontal cortex
According to Erik Erikson, if an adolescent struggles to find and adopt a suitable identity, he or she may _____________.
develop a sense of self that is "diffuse" because it is not organized around a central, unified core identity
What is the term for instances in which new words are associated with their meaning after only a brief encounter?
Raul and Raymond are 3 years old, and the main benefit they get from being friends is ___________.
doing things together and joint play
Brandy is an overweight 15 year old girl who is neither like nor disliked by others at her school. Rather, Brandy gets no attention from her classmates at all, and she feels as though she might as well be invisible. Brandy would be considered __________.
Children grow up to be resilient if they never experience severe stress.
Tomasina finds herself holding books and newspapers farther from her eyes in order to read and bring material into focus. Her eye exam will probably reveal that she has
When Walter devotes attention and practice to completing tax returns and has gained experience in that area, he is demonstrating _____________.
Which statement about suicide in early adulthood is true?
Women attempt suicide more often , but men commit suicide more often
It is now illegal to advertise an employment position by listing that it is specifically for either men or women
The notion that the nerves that branch out from the spinal and brain become less efficient with age is called _________.
peripheral slowing hypothesis
Intelligence that represents the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem solving situations is called __________.
A large generational divide involves the use of technology. People who are older than 65 are less likely to use technology than younger individuals. Some of this difference may be explained by a reduction in fluid intelligence that occurs as we age. What kind of barrier would describe this limitation?
According to the ___________ view of aging, declines in episodic memory may be related to the deterioration of the frontal lobes of the brain or a reduction in estrogen
According to research by psychologist William Perry, students entering Harvard University tended to have a view of the world that involved reasoning that something was right or wrong; people were good or bad; and others were either for them or against them. He called this _________.
K. Warner Schaie's sequential studies research suggests that there is no uniform pattern in adulthood of age-related changes across all intellectual abilities
Negative societal stereotypes produce a state of __________ in which members of a stereotyped group become aware of the beliefs that others hold about their academic abilities.
Memories that are related to unconscious information, such as how to ride a bike or write one's name, are called ________ memories.
Last year, Greta's knee injury caused her to drop out of her bowling league, but at 90 years old, she still enjoys life and is involved in many activities. Greta is successful at which of Peck's developmental stages?
body transcendence versus body preoccupation
The "silent killer" refers to ____________.
Researcher Timothy Salthouse suggests that if people are mentally active all of their lives, they enter late adulthood with _________.
a "cognitive reserve" that allows them to continue to perform at a relatively high mental level
In the video, Battle of the Brains, Nathan's brain was larger than average which explained his extremely high IQ score.
Sue's bones have become brittle, fragile, and thin. Her doctor would most likely diagnose her with ________.
According to Robert Sternberg, companionate love develops when __________ are present.
intimacy and decision/commitment
Theo returned home from vacationing in Europe. While he was flying home, his father died after suffering a heart attack. When told of his father's death, Theo suffered from symptoms similar to a panic attack. The unexpected death of his father would be described as an ___________ Theo.
Amelia has finished college, is working at a job she loves, and is imagining herself getting married to her long term boyfriend and starting a family. She is likely is in the _________ phase of emerging adulthood
According to developmental psychologist K. Warner Schaie, the period in middle adulthood when people take a broader perspective than earlier, including concerns about the world, is called the __________.
What statement is FALSE about the emerging adulthood period of development? (according to Dr. Arnett)
most emerging adults feel cynical about their job opportunities
Molly is a 27 year old female who looks years older than her actual age. She lives a high risk lifestyle that includes regular use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs, and she has never exercised regularly. Molly's behavioral choices have likely brought about physical declines that are referred to as _______.
The leading cause of cancer death among women in the US is breast cancer.
Behavior that is characterized by competitiveness, impatience, and a tendency toward frustration and hostility is called a _________ behavior pattern.
Juanita is feeling stressed today because her children need help with their homework and her elderly parents need someone to take them grocery shopping. Juanita is a member of the ___________ generation.
The process by which people concentrate on selected skill areas to compensate for losses in other areas is called ________.
Which psychologist developed the "seasons of life" theory, in which men in their early 40s are in a period of transition and crisis?
George is beginning to look back on his life and evaluate it. Which stage describes what George is attempting to accomplish?
ego integrity versus despair
Which of the following would be considered a reasonable answer as to why there is a gender gap in college attendance?
men have more job opportunities when they graduate from high school
Sternberg asserts that success in any career necessitates practical intelligence, which is different from intelligence involved in traditional academic endeavors.
What is a likely explanation for the results from cross-sectional studies showing that older people are less likely to score as well as younger subjects on traditional intelligence tests?
Muriel is an 86 year old woman who tries to function independently but has suffered for several years with forgetfulness, especially with recent memories. She has trouble recalling the names of her best friends when they call on the phone, and she worries that she may have a form of dementia called _________.
Which of the following is a leading cause of death in elderly people?
____________ is the tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, and religion.
When middle aged people focus on work that is directed toward others rather than themselves, Erik Erikson called this _______.
Renee is 67 years old and is in the hospital because she broke her hip. She will need extensive physical therapy for 2 months. Which of the following is the proper facility to provide care for her?
Jayne is having difficulty finding adequate, affordable day care for her child while she is at work. Instead of focusing on the negative, she looks at the bright side and realizes that at least she has a good job in a tight economy. Jayne is utilizing ____________.
Theories that suggest that a body's DNA genetic code contains a built-in time limit for the reproduction of human cells are called the __________.
genetic programming theories of aging
Which of the following does Buss (2004) offer as an explanation for cross-cultural similarities in gender differences in choice of mate?
Brenda owns a small bookstore that also serves as an art gallery for her artwork and that of some of her friends. Although this business may never make Brenda wealthy, she admits that it has been her dream since she was an art student in college. Brenda appears to be motivated by ______.
According to researchers Arnold Lazarus and Susan Folkman, an individual's assessment of whether one's coping abilities and resources are adequate to overcome the harm, threat, or challenge posed by the potential stressor is called the _________.
Mary looks at the phone number of her favorite pizza restaurant for a few seconds and then walks into the other room to call to order. Mary remembers the phone number in its correct sequence. Mary is taking advantage of _________.
short term memory
If Larry is taught new information about an elephant, he will benefit from using _________ about other large animals to store that new information so he can retrieve it when he needs it.
Senescence is not initiated until a person reaches 30 years of age.
According to the terminology used by demographers, people above 85 years of age are called old old.
Which of the Big Five major clusters of personality traits/characteristics pertains to the degree to which a person is moody, anxious, and self-critical?
Most research regarding the marital satisfaction ___________-.
substantiates the U-shaped pattern in which marital satisfaction is high at the beginning, drops down around the birth of children, and then gradually rises back to its original high level
Your IQ in childhood does not have any effect on your health in old age.
Jorge cannot accept that he is getting older and experiences despair. According to Bernice Neugarten, what is his personality type?
disintegrated and disorganized