SMAD 470 FINAL EXAM - key terms
Terms in this set (83)
application of massive scale data collection and analysis to thes study of human culture
the assumption that learning is being replaced with mindless play. critics of digitizing education use this term.
the large publishing conglomerate whose process for publication and review make academic books more expensive and less accessible to all
massive open online courses: courses offered online for free to up to thousands of people at a time
due to systemic racism or ethnocentrism ensures certain groups never accumulate enough wealth to pass onto the next generation.
the extent that individuals, families, and communities are able to fully participate in society and control their own destinies, with the goal of furthering equal access to economic resources, employment health, education, housing, recreation, culture and civic engagement
participatory design -
the people who will actually be using a given device, program, application or platform should have a say from the early stages in the design of technologies
Digital Divide Stats
-60 to 70% of world has no access to the digital world
-79% of north americans have access
-80% of people live in countries where the income gap is widening
digital divide - other issues
- language and culture: which languages and traditions are represented on web
- techno literacy: who does and doesn't receive culturally relevant education in using digital devices and resources
- censorship and openness: who does and does not have their access significantly limited by gov or corporate forces
technologies shape everything
technocultural (these approaches avoid the extremes of viewing technologies are running amok out of human control but avoid the equally dangerous assumption that technologies have no likely social consequences including unintended ones)
-blending of technology and culture - this approach argues that technologies and cultures can never be neatly separated because technical innovations are always created by individuals and groups deeply shaped by cultural assumption and biases
actor-network theory (a technocultural approach)
view technological devices as actors (agents) with something resembling human agency (the powering to impact events) but with the caveat that like humans, technological actors are always caught up in larger networks of power and casusality
4 main components of the study of digital cultures
1. production analysis: understanding the production process enabling digital cultures means asking who actually makes digital devices - under what economic and social conditions - who are the electronic company exec and what are their working lives like, who are the software designers, who are the engineers of hardware, who works on the assembly line
2. textual analysis: examines the verbal words and visual colors and aural voice elements of the website, games, and other digital spaces. includes sounds and imagery as well as words. ex: monitoring a chat room. usually qualitative
(content analysis: quantitative form of textual analysis)
3. audiences/user analysis: surveys or representative sampling, focus groups, cyber-ethnography - participatory observation.
understanding what happens to someone when they engage in a digital space/ use it
4.historical approaches: looking at larger historical context of things like media audiences, questions like what does the new tech do that could not be done by earlier forms of communication, what does new tech do more easily or cheaply or effectively than earlier mediums?
-coined through a science fiction novel by william gibson called neuromancer (1984)
(a 2 way process)
taking one media form and transmitting/transforming it through another
-a 2 way process.. incorporating the older media reshapes the new media (ex: TV now looks like websites, or an "old media" tv program is digitized and broadcast via a tablet or smartphone)
Domestication of technology
the process by which things that initially seem new and wild can quickly become familiar
pretending to be someone you are not online, often by crossing gender or ethnic boundaries - indicates a superficial effort to elude ascribed characteristics of identity
a significant phenomenon in chat rooms, social media and dating sites, and other online spaces.
cat-fish: someone who systematically lies about who they are online testifies to this ongoing process
concept which argues that people (especially young people) deeply immersed in social networking sites create their identities collectively with help from online friends, and with a sense that identity construction is always partly a fictional process
the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively
*those under 30 don't have the same privacy concerns as parents (digital immigrants) do
-the surveillance of a person's activities by studying the data trail created by actions such as credit card purchases, mobile phone calls, and internet use
data profiling - stereotyping users and pitching only certain products or services to them
- part human part machine .. characterizes the increasing entanglement of many humans with digital devices
-believe computers give us capabilities we would otherwise lack
-we aren't humans we've moved passed that since we're so connected with our devices
- the lessening of social inhibitions and taboos. in online environments it stems largely from the anonymity or invisibility provided by written content without identifiable visual or aural clues to identity.
-negative side of disinhibitions.. it encourages bullying ( 80% of people are more likely to bully online then off)
-cultural domination w/o overt force or coercion
ex: music industry , google search
-one culture is overwhelmed by the cultural products of dominant culture
-hegemonic influence over cultural products (tv, movies) by one culture over another. local traditions are lost or transformed beyond recognition
all technical devices and processes are designed and built consciously or unconsciously with particular users in mind - thus technologies tend to be biased by the cultural assumption and identities of designers
-sexual acts performed through the medium of digital technology
-the ways in which sexuality is represented in digital spaced, including but not restricted to sexual acts mediated by digital means
safety valve theory
-considerable amount of cyber cheating (online mediated sex with someone other than the partner with whom one is in a putatively monogamous relationship) some argue that this can provide healthier outlet for extra-marital or extra-commitment impulses. = safety valve theory
mainstreaming of pornography
- the movement of porn from the hidden edges of society to near the center via the web
slacktivism / hacktivism / cyber terrorism ** have written down
platform agnostic / trans-platform world
don't care what platform is ..
when a media product is produced in a variety of forms tells a story that goes between fictional and real world .. multiple points where consumer can engage. environment created in fictional story becomes part of a real like experience
not accepting of new technology
technology will take away paper and render institutions irrelevant --> endism. 6Ds
when technologies converge they take on and share the capacities and characteristics of other technologies alongside the core technology
media convergence : all media will meld into one
technological convergence: atoms to bits. the digitization of all media content
economic convergence: the horizontal integration of the entertainment industry
social or organic convergence: consumers multitasking strategies for navigating the new info environment
cultural convergence: the explosion of new forms of creativity at the intersections of various media technologies, industries and consumers
global convergence: the cultural hybridity that results from the international circulation of media content
the public sphere
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace
John Perry Barlow
Freeflow of information, philosphy of libertarianism
E-mail was born
World Wide Web
Time Berners Lee
created out of necessity. A common languagefor computers to connect to. Previously computers connected to the internet were all using different software companies and documentation.
He married hypertext with protocols and address URLs with HTML as the common language.
First Web site (WWW)
August 6, 1991
Tim Berners Lee vs Bill Gates
TBL believed it should be free and open to everyone and Gates thought it should have royalties and gather software profits
What launched in 1995?
Internet Explorer. Became 90% of the market share
shared music for free
Encouraged thousands to be law breakers
Problem with open web?
big corporations will have more resources to shout louder and become more powerful
First GUI browser. Distributed for free.
Early 1990s Microsoft
had 90% of PC marketshare in 1993. But Gates overlooked the potential of the internet.
Make money from a complete and powerful web browser. 90% of people switched in the first 30 days from Mosaic. Netscape caused Microsoft to focus on the web and the browser war started.
MS gave IE away for free and wouldn't install netscape into Windows ~1995
çan be everyday people, no longer controlled by big media
Problem with Google Book Search Program?
gives a big corp (Google) a ton of power and control of information
started as a directory that compiled useful links into one place
Started running banner ads because they had to make money somehow
Excite vs Yahoo!
First to use software to organize and index the web like Google does now
They Turned down opportunity to buy google for 1 million
One stop destinations for internet links. Looked like internet carnivals with the amount of information.
Search as a research tool
most powerful indication of what a buyer is looking for
Sell sponsored links to certain keyword searches
Googlephobia is most accurate in?
Privacy, google has such a huge database
Journalists and social media
social media is now the fastest way to be informed of a timely event (twitter, etc.)
Mass Data Analysis
can show cultural trends over time. Even with print media in the past. With
separated communication from distance. You could control things from farther away.
Trains could be organized to avoid problems, so telegraph and trains were huge together.
Marked the beginning of the information age
smaller firms, light agile and unecumbered. Comapnies will break into smaller groups
Disintermediation - eliminating the middlemen
the great moral, religious and metaphysical teachings which are the foundations of culture.
They're based on NO INFORMATION WHATSOEVER.
All men are created equal: A culturally accepted truth. By no means factually true.
They are cultural patterns created from experience.
Master ideas that are dangerous, vile, destructive.
Society is the war of each against all.
Nice guys finish last.
The end justifies the means.
entrepreneurial innovation was a key influence on the economy. He argued that innovators and entrepreneurs were dynamic forces of creativity. They possessed extraordinary capacities. The term he coined to describe this was creative destruction.
Daniel Bell's three historical periods of social change within the last 500 years.
Pre-industrial society (agricultural)
Post Industrial society -- Revised to Network society
mass consumer markets engendered by the mass production of standardized goods at low cost. Assembly line production.
19th century culture was defined by the novel, 20th century cultured was defined by the cinema, how will the culture of the 21st century be defined?
by the interface
the ability to create and consume credible accurate information
Characteristics of propaganda
High powered people
Those people remain hidden
Patterns in death records showed patterns in cause of death. What document was that found in?
John Graunt's Bills of Mortality
Fastest growing dataset
Google's Mission as defined by Eric Schmidt
Organize all the world's info and make it useful and searchable
Why is there a digital divide?
There is no profit incentive for telecom companies to give everyone good internet.
It's cheaper to upgrade copper than put fiber everywhere.
Either illegal or very difficult for local municipalities to make their own fiber network
Data to wisdom
Data -> Info -> knowledge -> Wisdom
Data is simply the reduction of uncertainty
First management and storage of large data
London's Old Bailey criminal proceedings
Over 200k crimes recorded. revealed words that could track the nature of crimes over time. Was one of the first data trend analysis tools
Who developed Tor browser?
Paul Syverson at the Naval Research Laboratory
Using the internet to deliberately push a government or dictatorship
having a group have their homeland be online, like ISIS
caused a major blackout in 2003, it was a computer virus
Was new because it didn't need a program to piggyback, it was self-activated
What is privacy?
the power to control what other people know about you. Or, the power to control the truth about you.