Physical Science December Exam Review
Includes Chapters 1-8 Vocab (what was on the study guide)
Terms in this set (84)
anything that occupies space and has mass
the microscopic, random jostling of suspended matter due to the collisions of innumerable gas and liquid particles in which the matter is suspended
the concept that tiny particles in constant, random motion make up all matter
a substance that contains only a single element or compound
a nonchemical combination of two or more substances
a physical form of matter determined by the arrangement and energy of its particles, states of matter: liquid, solid, and gas
the state of a substance in which its particles occupy fixed positions, it is rigid and had a definite volume and shape and low compressibility
the state of a substance in which its particles are close together but mobile; has a definite volume but no shape; low compressibility, can flow, and has a free surface in a less-than-full container
the state of a substance in which its particles are far apart and have large kinetic energies; it has no fixed volume or shape, is highly compressible, and is able to flow
the change of state from a solid to a liquid that occurs when a substance's temperature rises to its melting point
the change of state from a liquid to a solid that usually occurs when a substance cools to its freezing point
any process in which particles of a liquid enter the gaseous phase
rapid vaporization that occurs when a liquid's vapor pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure and the static pressure in the liquid, causing it to form vapor bubbles; may occur anywhere in a liquid
relatively slow vaporization that occurs when a liquid's temperature is below its boiling point but above its freezing point; occurs only at the surface of the liquid
the change of state directly from a solid to a vapor, bypassing the liquid state, at temperatures below the melting point of the substance
the change from a vapor to the liquid state when the vapor cools below its dew point temperature
the change of state of a vapor directly to a solid, bypassing the liquid state; occurs when the vapor is in contact with a surface whose temperature is below its freezing point
a system of measurement in which all units of a given dimension are related to each other by powers of 10
the global scientific metric system
an assessment of the measurement error, an indication of how close a measurement is to its acceptable value
an assessment of the exactness of a measurement, a more precise measurement has more known digits than a less precise measurement of the same quantity
an assessment of the random errors associated with a series of measurements, results showing small random errors around an average value for a given measurement have good repeatability
significant digit (SD)
a digit in a measurement used to communicate the precision of the measurement
a convenient way to express very large or small numbers into a product of a small number and power of ten
the measure of the earth's gravity acting on the matter of an object
the measure of the inertia of matter in an object or within the boundaries of a physical system
the space enclosed or occupied by an object or within the boundaries of a physical system
the mass of a substance or object contained within a stated volumetric unit
the study of forces and motion, which consists of kinematics, dynamics, and statics
a distinct part of the universe, from elementary particles to galaxies, that we may want to study or measure; it is separated from its surroundings by an actual or imaginary boundary
frame of reference
the geometric space containing the point of reference and coordinate axes from which a person observes or measures position and movement
a span of time during which we observe a phenomenon; we calculate this by subtracting the initial time from the final time, it is always a positive number
the science of describing how things move; it involves the measurements and calculations of positive, time, velocity, acceleration, and displacement within a reference frame
a positive scalar quantity that is the total linear dimension traveled by a moving object during a time interval; it also may be the magnitude of displacement
a quantity that describes the net distance and direction of motion; it is always a vector quantity and is represented graphically by a vector arrow whose tail is at the starting point of motion whose tip is at the ending point
the rates of motion of a system; as with any rate, we express it as a change of position (a distance) with time, it may also be the magnitude of velocity, it is always a scalar quantity
the rate of displacement of a system, it is always a vector quantity that points in the same direction as the displacement vector of the system
the rate of change of the velocity or speed of a system during a time interval, it may be a vector or scalar quantity
the study of forces and how forces interact with matter, including their effects on an object's motion. Newton's three laws of motion form the basis of this.
A push or pull on a system. It may be a vector or scalar quantity.
a force that acts between systems only when one system touches another
a field in which a force vector exists at every point in the field. Isaac Newton originally called field forces action-at-a-distance forces to distinguish them from contact forces.
the tendency of any kind of matter to resist change in its motion. Mass is a measure of inertia.
A contact force that opposes the movement of objects past each other. It may be a vector or scalar quantity. Kinds of this include kinetic friction, static friction, rolling friction, and fluid friction
The condition of an object accelerated by the force of gravity alone with no other external forces acting on it. Can only occur in a vacuum.
A form of friction exerted by a fluid on an object moving through the fluid or as the fluid flows around the object
A three-dimensional region within an atom occupied by groups of electrons with similar energies. Energy levels are arranged concentrically around the nucleus. They can be view as similar to the layers of an onion in order of increasing energies but their actual structure is far more complex. Each level has an allowable number of orbitals and electrons.
Also the ability to do work
The energy of a system due to its position or condition. A form of mechanical energy.
The energy of motion that depends only on the system's mass and speed. A form of mechanical energy.
The average sum of the kinetic energies of all the particles in an object. Directly proportional to the temperature of the object.
The transmission of energy through matter by the periodic longitudinal motion of particles (mechanical waves).
The ability to do work through the action of the electromagnetic force on or by electrical charges.
The potential energy stored in the chemical bonds between atoms that is released or absorbed during chemical reactions.
The potential energy, stored in an atom's nucleus, that is released or absorbed when an atom experiences nuclear fission or fusion.
The energy equivalent to matter itself, according to the equation in Einstein's special theory of relativity.
For a machine or process, the ratio of energy or work produced to the energy or work that was put into the machine or process. It is a measure of the effectiveness of converting energy from one form to another.
A property of a moving system that is proportional to its speed and mass. Isaac Newton called it the quantity of motion.
mechanical work (W)
the energy transferred to a system by an external force when it acts on the system to move it; scalar quantity measured in joules
the rate of doing work, measured in watts
a basic mechanical device that either reduces effort when doing a certain amount of work or increases the magnitude of motion for a given input motion
mechanical advantage (MA)
a measure of the reduction in effort to do a certain amount of work when using a simple machine; no units
when using a simple machine, the distance through which the effort force acts equals the distance the load moves multiplied by the MA of the machine
a simple machine that can be modeled as a rigid bar that pivots about a fulcrum to exert an effort torque against a resistance torque
the point about which a lever pivots or rotates
a twisting action produced by a force exerted perpendicularly to a torque arm
the study of how fluids flow and how forces and energy are transmitted through fluids
the force exerted perpendicular on a unit of area
the buoyant force exerted by a fluid on an immersed object is equal to the weight of the fluid that the object displaces
specific gravity (s.g.)
the ratio of a substance's density to water's density; a unit quantity numerically equal to the density of the substance
state's that changes of pressure on the surface of a confined fluid are exerted equally throughout the fluid and at all points on the fluid's container
states that the total energy for a confined ideal fluid flowing through a pipe is conserved at all locations within a pipe
the tendency of a fluid flowing past a curved surface to follow the surface
the volume of a fixed quantity of a confined gas is inversely proportional to its pressure when its temperature is held constant
the volume of a fixed quantity of a confined gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature when its pressure is held constant
God's command given to mankind in Genesis 1.28 to exercise dominion over the world by wisely using the resources He has placed here
an assumption that a person makes about the world that helps him to investigate the world and understand it from a certain point of view
the perspective from which a person sees or interprets all matters of life
the collection of observations, inferences, and models produced through a systematic study of nature for the purpose of enabling humans to exercise good and wise dominion over God's world
a workable explanation or description of a natural or artificial phenomenon; may be physical, virtual, or conceptual
a scientific model that explains a related set of phenomena according to a certain paradigm
a model, often expressed as a mathematical equation, that describes phenomena under certain conditions
scientific work that involves observing and testing present-day phenomena
the application of scientific principles to create models of events and processes that occurred in the unobservable past, made on the basis of observable evidence that exists today
a temporary, testable explanation of a phenomenon that stimulates and guides further scientific investigation
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