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Terms in this set (92)
Amendment to U.S. Constitution that empowers the states to take responsibility for education.
Overview of American Public School Governance
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
Act most closely associated with educational funding under the Obama administration
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
This put a lot of money into education to prepare students for jobs
Raegan - 1980-88
First president to experience the department as a cabinet-level agency
Who is our U.S. Secretary of Education (2017)
Appoints State Superintendent, Members of the State Board of Education, & budget
In what way does the governor influence education?
Tennessee State Superintendent
State Board of Education
Establishes the standards by which schools are accredited
State Board of Education
Primarily a Policy making body
State Department of Education
Addresses teacher certification or licensure, special education, curriculum levels, instruction, and school levels
State School Board Members
Responsible for setting policies that affect the operation of Schools
Director of Schools/Superintendent
School Districts Chief Executive Office
Oversees every aspect of School life and is responsible to the district for all that occurs at the school
Teachers are involved in decision making that was once only given to school Administrators
What does "Site-Based Management" mean?
Parents, Businesses, Universities, and Special Interest Groups (Booster Clubs)
What other entities impact the governance of public schools in the U.S.?
Local (44%), State (43%), and Federal (13%)
Most funding for public education come from (List all and their %)
What percentage of all financing for education does the federal government contribute?
What percentage of all financing for education does the State government contribute?
What percentage of all financing for education does the Local government contribute?
Approximately what percentage of the U.S. government budget goes into public education?
Funds earmarked for specific purposes
What are Categorical grants?
State: Income, Corporate, Sales, Excise, and Sin tax(s)
State money for Schools is through:
Source of local funding for schools is primarily
Expenditure per pupil
The average amount of money spent from federal, state, and local sources on an individual student
A little over $8,000
TN's Expenditure per Pupil
U.S. Average Expenditure per Pupil
How much more spending do Children of poverty require than students of average socioeconomic status?
"A Teacher-Student Dynamic of Sensitivity, Reflection, and Faith."
What is Union University's Conceptual Framework?
Guided by a set of beliefs that leads to attitudes & actions focused on what's best for students
What does it mean to be an ethical teacher?
1. U.S. Constitution 2. Federal Laws 3. State and Local Laws and Policies 4. Case Law
Four basic sources of laws directly impacting everyday work of all teachers
1st, 4th, & 14th
Amendments directly impacting teachers and schools
Freedom of speech, guide for decision making on educational issues
Unreasonable Search and Seizure, basic privacy & security of students
Right to due process & guarantees equal protection to all citizens -- Teachers job security & right to be heard if charges are made against them
Stare decisis - "let the decision be" -- Once a decision is made in court, that decision sets a precedent for future similar cases
Agreement between two parties, teacher and school system, states rights and responsibilities of each
Ongoing contract to teach, usually 3 years
Reduction in force
When a teacher is let go because there are too many teachers (ex. low student numbers, budget cuts, or program cancellations)
Being put out of your job
States allow these to negotiate with school boards concerning element of teacher contracts and working conditions
National Education Association (NEA) & American Federation of Teachers (AFT)
Two Major Unions
Step district must take in order to "dismiss" a teacher
Important principle that requires guidelines to be followed to ensure that individuals are protected from arbitrary or capricious treatment by those in Authority
Freedom of Expression
Teachers have freedom of symbolic, written, and spoken expression, within reason
Form of Expression the allows teacher to use their judgement in making decisions on assignments, there are limits to this freedom
In place of Parents
In loco parentis
bound by law to care for and protect children in the school setting as a parent would & are held to a standard of reasonableness
What are the legal responsibilities of teachers (towards Children)
1. The person has a legal duty to PROTECT Children
2. The person fails to act within reason and provide the appropriate standards of CARE
3. There is a casual connection between the person's conduct and the result of injury
4. Actual DAMAGE occurs to the injured person
To be held liable, these 4 components must be proven:
Avoid liability, abide by copyright laws, and report suspected child abuse
Teachers have the legal responsibility to:
What amendment says that government (public schools) can neither establish religion nor interfere with the free exercise of it?
Students may do this by themselves or in groups as long as it is not disruptive and is not school sponsored
Teacher can teach about these but can not observe them as religious events or encourage students to do so
Teachers may be involved in student religious organizations as long as it is after school hours or on their own time
Can teachers participate in religious activities with students?
It is permissible to teach about religion as long as the teacher does not try to convince students of a particular belief
Can teachers teach about religion?
Cannot be disruptive -- School can give uniforms
Freedom of Symbolic expression (dress codes/ uniforms) for students?
Students are allowed to express their views symbolically through what they wear as long as it is not disrupting
Students are limited as to what is acceptable while they are on school grounds
Students Freedom of Speech
Freedom of Press for Students
teachers and administrators may exercise editorial control over school publications
Key term for Search and seizure (4th Amendment)
behavior with sexual implications that is not wanted -- teacher liable to take care of it
U.S. court system has been clear that schools have the right to administer a variety of punishment based on policy
Fewer than 1/2 States allow this
Suspension & Expulsion
Two Types of Exclusionary Punishment
usually 1-10 days
How long is a suspension generally?
Semester or indefinite period in which students are entitled to Due Process
Students have the right to refuse to participate in SOME activities
Students rights of non-participation
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) of 1974
Parents can look at grades etc. till the student is 18 then the student must give the parents permission to view records
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act; 1974
What does "FERPA" stand for and what year was it started?
Right to non-discrimination
Students may not legally be discriminated against by public schools
Title IX of the Education Amendments Act; 1972
"No person in the United States small, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under, any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance." -- What is this and what year was it passed?
Public Law 94-142 (PL 94-142) -- 1975
Opened all public schools to students with disabilities and mandated that students with disabilities be given the opportunity to benefit from special education services at no cost to families. What is it and what year?
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) -- 1990 -- Students with autism and traumatic brain injury were added
Pl 94-142 was renamed to this in what year and who did it add?
What teachers are expected to teach, what students are expected to learn, and what society expects of schools; What is intentionally taught within the stated goals for student learning.
Formal Curriculum is sometimes called
What students should know and be able to do relative to subject areas at specific grade levels
Performance Standards or Benchmarks
The level of knowledge or skill that is considered acceptable within a particular Grade level.
Support content learning by explaining both how the content might best be learned and how to use the content once it is acquired
Race to the Top
Put in place by President Obama and Secretary of Education Arne Duncan, this initiative challenges states to make bold efforts in IMPROVING TEACHING AND LEARNING
Integrated or Interdisciplinary Curriculum
Involves approaching a concept from different perspectives to create learning opportunities based on connections.
Integrated or Interdisciplinary Curriculum
Include content and skills from a variety of subjects and lessons and weave them together in meaningful ways
Approach to curriculum in Culturally Responsive way that purposely includes contributions and viewpoints from perspectives of different cultures, ethnicities, races, genders, socioeconomic levels, or any other way that we may differ
What teachers and schools teach and what students learn that is not part of a lesson plan, a curriculum guide, or standards. Learned through attitudes, values, and various types of informal teaching situations.
Implicit Curriculum, Wayside teaching, and Hidden Curriculum
Informal Curriculum is also called these three things:
Activities sponsored by the school but outside the limits of formal curriculum
What is not Taught in the school, either because it is not important or it is controversial like religion
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
Provides teaching jobs now and for the future, almost $100 billion pledged as additional support for public education; Obama; Delivered in the form of Race To The Top Grants.
Goss vs. Lopez; Ohio, 1975
Due Process Rights; Several High School students suspended without a hearing, Supreme courts went in favor of the students, Justices wrote that students have property right to school attendance
Pickering vs. Board of Education; Illinois, 1968
Teacher wrote a letter criticizing local school board actions and was dismissed and the state supreme court upheld the decision. Decision was overturned when taken to U.S. Supreme Court and teacher go to keep his job. -- Teachers can have an opinion
Keefe vs. Geanakos; Mass., 1969
Teacher assigned article for students to read and later discuss. Article contained offensive language, some of which the teacher read in class. He was dismissed but the district court overturned the ruling when it was discovered that the same language could be found in some of the schools library books.
Brown vs. Board of Education, 1954
Court decision ruled that separate schools are not equal and opened many schoolhouse doors to African Americans.
There are nonnegotiable consequences for certain infractions
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