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cultural anthropology - FINAL
Terms in this set (27)
what is art?
the creative use of human imagination to interpret, express and enjoy life
-unique human ability to use symbols to give shape and significance to the physical world for a more utilitarian purpose
oral traditions denote cultures unwritten stories, beliefs, and customs.
-include: Narrative, drama, poetry, incantations, proverbs, riddles, and word games
3 Catagories of Narratives
Myths, Legends and tales
What is art?
Rites of passage often feature special music, dance, song, bodily adornment, and manifestations of expressive culture
Art, Society, and culture
as a culture, the appreciation for the arts depends on cultural background.
-Appreciation for the arts must be learned
-What is pleasing (depends on the culture)
-The art of storytelling plays a critical role in the transmission, preservation, and expression of cultural traditions.
Art Continuity and change
the arts go on changing, although certain art forms have survived for thousands of years.
-art uses many MEDIA
Counties and cultures known for particular contributions, including art
Balinese known for dance,
Navajo known for sand paintings, jewerly, and weaving.
French known for cuisine
Greeks known for drama
Study of Music
The study of music in specific cultural settings has developed into the specialized field of ETHNOMUSICOLOGY
-Almost everywhere human music is perceived in terms of a scale.
Traditional European music is measured into recurrent patterns of (2, 3, 4 ) Beats.
Social functions of music
-Express a group's concerns
-serves as a powerful way for a social or ethnic group to assert distinctive identity.
-It may be used to advance political, economic, and social agendas
3 ways to approach the study of art
Aesthetic approach focuses on how much things are depicted.
-Narrative approach focuses on what things are depicted
-Interpretive approach can reveal the meaning of other peoples art
Causes of Cultural Change
accidents, including the unexpected outcome of existing events.
-Peoples deliberate attempt to solve some perceived problem.
-Change may be forced upon one group in the course of especially (Intense contact between two societies.
-Sick Amish kids had "blue lights" (tanning bed style) and space heaters to fend off disease..
(this is something they took from another culture)
-They had religious approval BEFORE they started to use the lights
Mechanisms of Cultural change
The ultimate source of change: Some new practice, tool, or principal
-others adopt the innovation, and it becomes socially shared
-primary innovations are chance discoveries of new principals
-Secondary innovations are improvements made by applying known principals
Acceptance of innovation
Depends partly on its perceived superiority to the method or object it replaces
- Also connected with the prestige of the innovator and recipient groups
Are human practices always adaptive?
In the US it is not adaptive to deplete groundwater in regions of fast-growing populations.
Conditions for rebellion and revolution
Loss of support of the intellectual class.
-A leader or group of leaders with enough charisma or population appeal to mobilize the population against the establishment
Came from anthropologists sought to provide colonial administrations with more understanding of native cultures.
-Later anthropologists tried to help indigenous people cope with outside threats on their interests
Process of modernization - 4 Subprocesses
1) Technological Devolpment
2) Agricultural Devolpment
Dvorak and QWERTY keyboard
Although superior, Dvorakhas not been adopted due to the head start enjoyed by QWERTY
Conditions for rebellion and revolution
loss of prestige of established authority
-Threat to recent economic improvement
-Indecisiveness of government
Applying Anthropology: How does it make a difference ?
There has been a growing awareness of the application of anthropological perspectives and methods to the solution of practical problems
-Private and government agencies are using anthropology to solve everyday problems.
-Applying anthropology is about using the tools of anthropology to uncover cultural issues unique to each situation.
What is applied anthropology?
Is the branch of anthropology that focuses on the application of anthropological methods and approaches to the solution of problems, as distinct academic anthropology.
-Applied anthropologists usually call themselves CONSULTANTS because most people may not understand the scope of what anthropology is all about.
What do applied anthropologists do?
-Help businesses and corporations solve problems like management issues, customer complaints, product design, etc.
-work in programs of natural resources management and agricultural development.
-help develop programs in public health and nutrition and family planning
-Work in education and government at all levels (local, state, federal)
The study of culture by applied anthropologists would include attending meetings such as this NIKE corporation ethnic diversity.
Anthropology in health care
-Focuses on the application of anthropological methods and perspectives to issues of health and illness
-The work of ethnographers such as Juan Chavira has revealed the complexity of issues related to illness and health, including folk medicine
Anthropology in Economic devlopment
Anthropological consulting in economic development programs enable the anticipation and avoidance of common barriers to change.
-One of the barriers that Murray identified using ethnographic methods was the perception by peasents that trees took to long to grow
Anthropology in Business / Government - ON TEST
The need for BALANCE and OBJECTIVITY still remains.
-Things to remember when dealing with the Corporate Culture
-(Culture (capital C) vs. culture (lowercase c)
-Remember the HOLISTIC APPROACH
(look at both sides, unbias)
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