How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

100 terms

SCC Final Exam

SCC Final Exam
STUDY
PLAY
The main energy source for most living cells?
ATP
These are the primary compounds that make up the cell membrane.
Proteins and phospholipids
Composed of glycerol and fatty acids
triglycerides
The genetic material of cells.
DNA
Antibodies and enzymes are examples.
Proteins
The most important solvent in living cells.
Water
Insoluable in water; steroids are examples.
Lipid
Describe the structure of DNA
Two long strands wrapped around each other to form a double helix. Looks like a twisted ladder and each strand is composed of many nucleotides. Each neucleotide is made of a sugar, phosphate and a base. There are four different bases; adenine, thymine, cytocine, guanine. Watson & Crick
The major proponent of spontaneous generation
Needham
"Father of Microbiology", Disproved spontaneous generation
Pastuer
Discovered penicillin
Fleming
Discovered phagocytic cells
Metchnikoff
Developed the vaccine for smallpox
Jenner
Responible for one enzyme-one protein theory
Beadle and Tatum
First to associate a specific organism with a specific disease.
Koch
First to observe microorganisms
Leeuwenhoek
First to observe antiseptic/disinfectant; carbolic acid
Lister
Viruses that infect bacteria
bacteriaphage
Type of gene transfer that can transfer the most genetic material
conjugation
DNA->mRNA
transcription
Genetic transfer involving "naked DNA"
transformation
Type of enzyme always present in a cell.
constitutive
Jumping genes
tranposons
Enzymes that are only present if the substrate is present (certain conditions exist)
inducible
This is a base substitution mutation
Point mutation
These organisms are classified according to locomotion
protozoa
Submicroscopic intracellular paracites
virus
This organism reproduces by spores
fungi
These divide by binary fission
bacteria, prokaryotes
These microbes have no cell wall, only a cell membrane
protozoa
This causitive agent of CJD is an infectious piece of protein.
prion
Infectious piece of RNA that cause some plant diseases
Viroid
These organisms have a cell wall composed of chitin
fungi
These microbes are photosynthetic
algea
These organisms possess only one chromosome
bacteria, prokaryote
This virus is the most common cause of pneumonia in infants
Respiratory Syncytial Virus, RSV
"Break-bone fever"
Dengue Fever
This virus is a "slapped cheek" appearance in children
Fifth Disease
This virus is often associated with cervical cancer
HPV
One must have chickenpox first to develop this infection
shingles
This virus is spread by inhalation of dried urine from infected rodents
HantaVirus Pulmonary Syndrome
Coldsores
Herpes simplex 1
Vaccinations for this infection include Salk, Sabin and OPV
poliomyelitis
Koplik spots are characteristic lesions of this infection
measles
This disease has been completely eradicated by vaccination in 1980
Smallpox
Negri bodies are characteristic inclusion bodies of this virus
Rabies
A salivary gland infection that can lead to sterility in postpubertal males
mumps
121*C ar 15 psi for 15 minutes
autoclave
Another term for cleaning
sanitization
100*C
boiling
62*C for 30 minutes
pasteurization
This germicidal activity is about 260 nm
nonionizing radiation, UV
Freeze-drying to preserve bacteria
Lyophilization
During this growth phase cells are metabolically active; preparing to divide
lag phase
During this growth phase cell death is equal to cell multiplication
stationary phase
Cynobacteria are examples of this nutritional type
photoautroph
Nitrifying bacteria are examples of this nutritional type
chemoautotroph
During this growth phase cells divide exponentially
log phase
Most pathogens and normal microbiota are classified in this group
chemoheterotroph
This organism is an acidophile; causes gastric ulcers
helicobacterpylori, H-pylori
Gram neg bacillus; normal bacteria of the large intestine
E. coli
These are gram pos cocci in clusters
styphylococcus
The aerobic sporeformer genius
Bacillus
The genius of anaerobic sporeformers
Clostridium
Bakers yeast; produces alcohol by fermentation
Saccharomyces
All members of this genius are acid-fast
mycobacteria
This is an example of an obligate Halophile
Halobacteria
The yogurt bacteria
Lactobacillus acidophilus
This genius has no call wall; a naturally occuring protoplast
mycoplasma
Doorway to the Kreb's cycle
Acetyl CoA
Carbon dioxide + water -->glucose + water+ oxygen
Oxygenic photosynthesis
This phase of cellular respiration takes place in the prokaryotic cell membrane
Electron Trasport chain in cell wall
Glucose --->pyruvic acid
Glycolosis, 2 ATP
An organism that cannot grow without oxygen
Obligate aerobe
These organisms require oxygen at a lower concentration than found in the atmosphere
microaerophiles
These microorganisms grow better at high temperatures
Thermophiles
These organisms prefer oxygen but can ferment if oxygen is present
Facultive anaerobe
These are catalase negative organisms
anaerobes and aerotolerant bacteria such streptococcus and entercoccus
These organisms grow in the refrigerator
psychophile
These organisms grow best at room or body temperature
mesophile
Who was Semmelweiss?
Handwashing
What is recombinant DNA?
DNA with two or more sources
What is the purpose of endospores?
survival
What kind of chemical bonds hold organic material together?
covalent bonds
Which bacteria are used to test the effectiveness of disinfectants?
Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonos
What is the pH of an acid?
acid < 7, base > 7
What is a chemically defined medium?
exact chemical composition is known
What is ethylene oxide? How is it used?
It is a gas used to kill all microbes and endospores but requires lengthy exposure times. It is highly penetrable and effective for use in steriliztion. Used to sterilize petree dishes.
What is capnophile?
CO2 lover
Which organisms are permenant houseguests?
Herpes
What is Zoonosis?
animal disease that can be spread to humans
What caused the pandemic of 1918 that killed more people that in WW1?
Influenza
What bacteria is used in the Ames test?
Salmonella
What is the difference between competitive and noncompetitive enzyme inhibition?
Competive fills the active site of an enzyme substrate and competes with the normal substrate for the active site. Noncompetitive (allosteric inhibition) interacts with another site (allosteric site) of the enzyme site. This interaction causes the active site to change shape making it nonfunctional.
What is monotrichous? How many flagella?
A single flagellum at one pole, has one flagella
What are examples of Tetratogens we studied?
Herpes, Rubella, Cytomegaloviruses
How can you grow viruses?
animals, cell host, fertal egg
How is Hep A transmitted?
Fecal-oral
What is the most severe type of Hepatitus? Has the highest mortality rate?
Hepatitus D; cannot have Hep D without having Hep B.
Which type of bacteria has a lipopolysaccharide outer membrane?
Gram neg.