Orni Lab 1 Feather Terms
Terms in this set (55)
A long central shaft. in down feathers it is greatly reduced or lacking.
The hollow base of the rachis
On either side of the rachis extend these
have small hooks that interlock (velcro-like) form solid surfaces on either side of the rachis in contour and flight feathers
extend from barbs
solid surfaces on either side of the rachis in contour and flight feathers
small feathers attached to the bases of larger ones
feather tracts or pterylae
term used to describe the concentration of feathers in areas
spaces between feather tracts
principal flight feathers
are attached to the bones of the hand and are numbered from the inside out
attached to the ulna and are numbered from the outside in;
attached to the brachium, and usually number three or four
The tail feathers
arise from the shoulder and overly the
scapula (shoulder blades) at the base of the dorsal wing. These
feathers often cover much of the folded wing on a perched bird.
Overlying the alula and the remiges on the dorsal
and ventral surface of the wing are rows of small overlapping
feathers called coverts.
the ventral counterpart of the
scapulars, and are found on the ventral base of the wing (in the
"armpit"). In many species these feathers are pale, but in a few (i.e.
the Black-bellied Plover, family Charadriidae) they are dark and
serve as a good field mark for a bird in flight.
extends from just posterior to the forehead to
the beginning of the cervical vertebrae of the neck.
group of feathers surrounding the eye
at the edge of the eyelids. These feathers often contrast with those
immediately surrounding them, forming a distinct eye ring that
can be a useful field mark.
lateral area of the head between the front of
the eyes and the base of the bill.
between the eye and the throat, extending back from a point where
the upper and lower jaw meet
a patch of feathers
just behind and below the eye that cover the external ear. They
are often loosely webbed.
feathers immediately above the eye. It is distinctly colored in many
birds (especially sparrows, family Emberizidae)
extends back along the side of the head from
the posterior angle of the eye.
the dorsal surface of the neck extending
from the mid back of the skull to the beginning of the thoracic vertebrae.
the ventral region extending from just under
and below the lower mandible to the anterior margins of the sternum.
extends from the base of the upper
mandible to a line drawn across the top of head approximately
over the middle of the eyes.
the tips of the wing coverts in some species contrast in color with surrounding feathers, forming a conspicuous horizontal "bank" across the folded wing
the area of the back and upper wing surfaces, the color of which is especially useful in distinguishing gull species
(colored secondaries, useful especially in distinguishing duck species
-for much of the bill's length, it is deeper than it is wide, as in a puffin
the tips of the mandibles cross each other, as in a crossbill
sieve-billed; the mandibles have a series of transverse tooth-like ridges, as in many ducks
the upper mandible is longer than the lower, and its tip is bent over the lower, as in a hawk
the bill is widened toward its tip, as in the Northern Shoveler
the bill curves ventrally, as in a curlew
the bill curves dorsally, as in an avocet
the upper mandible has a notched "tooth", as in a falcon
the bill's edges (called the tomia) are saw-like, as in a merganser
the bill is the shape of a cone, as in a redpoll and some other finches
the front three toes (toes 2, 3, and 4). This is the most prevalent
type of webbed foot, and is found in the ducks, geese, and swans
(order Anseriformes), gulls and terns (family Laridae) and other
webbing between all four
toes, and are found in all members of the highly aquatic order
Pelecaniformes (pelicans, cormorants, gannets, boobies, and others).
a reduced webbing between
the front three toes (toes 2, 3, and 4). Unlike palmate feet, the webbing
doesn't extend all the way to the tips of the toes. This condition
is found in some sandpipers and plovers (order
Charadriiformes), storks (family Ciconiidae), all grouse (family
Phasianidae), and other groups.
an evolutionary alternative to the webbed
foot., and are characterized by toes that are flattened and edged
with flexible ridges that collapse on the forward stroke of the foot
characterized by long, strong digits
armed with heavy claws for catching, holding, and killing prey
characterized by rectangular
scales arranged in overlapping rows along the anterior edge of the
tarsus and foot.
characterized by small, irregularly
arranged granular scales.
characterized by several long, continuous
platelike scale covering the tarsus, with no small overlapping
characterized by three toes facing
forward (digits 2-4) and one toe (digit 1, the hallux) facing
backwards.the most common arrangement:
songbirds (order Passeriformes) and most other birds that
characterized by two toes facing
forward (digits 2 and 3) and two toes facing backward (digits 1
and 4): in other words, the outer toe is reversed. This is the second
most common toe arrangement in birds. It is found in most woodpeckers
(family Picidae), owls (order Strigiformes), cuckoos (order
Cuculiformes), most parrots (order Psittaciformes), mousebirds
(order Coliiformes), and others.
like the zygodactyl foot
except that the inner toe is reversed (digits 3 and 4 face forward, 1
and 2 face backward).
characterized by a fusion of the second
and third toes (the inner and middle digits) along part of their
length. This condition is found in the kingfishers and other members
of the order Coraciiformes.
the first and fourth
(outer) digits pivot freely forward and backward. Birds with this
arrangement can face all four toes to the front.Most swifts exhibit
this condition, and rotate all four toes forward when hanging from
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