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Intro to Gen. Psych 1101 Exam Three
Terms in this set (118)
This figure shows a comparison between the personality profiles of airline pilots and writers. Which of the following personality tests was used for this comparison?
the 16 PF
This photo shows characters from the film The Wizard of Oz -- the Cowardly Lion (seeking courage), Dorothy (the motherless child), the Tin Woodsman (seeking love), and the Scarecrow (seeking wisdom). According to _________, these types of images, often found in popular myths, novels, and films, represent universal human instincts, themes, and preoccupations, called _________.
Carl Jung; archetypes
The drawing depicts Sigmund Freud's famous iceberg analogy for the structure of personality. Which letter labels the dimension that Freud called the ego?
Raymond Cattell used a statistical technique called ________ to sort through a large number of personality traits and identify those that represented the most basic dimensions of personality.
The drawing depicts Sigmund Freud's famous iceberg analogy for the structure of personality. Which letter labels the personality structure that doesn't develop until about age 5 or 6, and represents a person's conscience?
According to reciprocal determinism
human behavior and personality are caused by the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors.
Dr. Romero asked her patient, Glen, to study a brightly colored image made by an inkblot on a card. She asked Glen to tell her what he "saw" in the image and took careful notes of his descriptions. What test is Dr. Romero using?
the Rorschach Inkblot Test
This photo shows a psychologist administering a personality test to a young person who is asked to create a story about the ambiguous scene depicted on the card he is holding. This test is called the:
Thematice Apperception Test (TAT)
Jacob is imaginative, creative, and seeks out new experiences. Sean is hardworking, ambitious, neat, and prides himself on never giving up until a task is finished. In terms of the five-factor model, Jacob would probably score high on the dimension of ________, while Sean would probably score high on the dimension of ________.
openness to experience; conscientiousness
Cross-cultural research on traits has found that:
people in a variety of cultures describe personality in terms of the same basic traits that are identified by the five-factor model.
Harry is considering going to sex therapy because of his inability to achieve or maintain an erection. Harry appears to be suffering from:
About ________ percent of men ages 18-94 have not had sexual intercourse at all in the past year.
When 9-year-old Jacob is asked by his mother to tidy up his room and put his toys away, he does what he is told because he knows that she will give him a special treat afterwards. Kohlberg would say that Jacob is operating at the ________ level of moral reasoning.
As a general rule, the greatest vulnerability to ________ occurs during the ________ period of prenatal development.
What are the three fundamental needs identified by Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory of motivation?
autonomy, competence, and relatedness
____________ refers to the notion that the body monitors and maintains internal states, such as body temperature and energy supplies, at relatively constant levels.
Dave is very confident about his ability to deal with any situation that might arise in his job as a firefighter. Albert Bandura would probably classify Dave as a person with a high level of ________ in firefighting situations.
The purpose of using a double-blind research design is to:
guard against the possibility that the researcher will treat participants differently or communicate the behavior that is expected of the participants.
A fundamental requirement of an experiment is that the ___________ variable must be manipulated.
There are roughly ______________ neurons in the human brain?
If a neuron is insufficiently stimulated then an action potential does not occur. This principle is the
Wernicke's area is located at the left temporal lobe
Data-driven processing involves receiving stimuli to the senses from one's external environment. What is another way of referring to data-driven processing?
Visual acuity is highest when images are focused on the fovea because of the high concentration of _________ in that part of the eye.
The clear membrane that covers the outside the eye and helps gather and direct incoming light is called the:
Solomon Asch set up an experimental situation in which participants were asked to identify which of three comparison lines was identical to a standard line, as shown in the illustration below. His research was designed to answer a straightforward question, namely:
Would people conform to group pressure even if the group was clearly wrong?
Leslie is concerned about the environment and consistently sorts her garbage by placing paper, plastic, metal, and glass in their respective recycling containers. This example best illustrates the _________ component of attitudes.
While studying in the crowded library, Arlene hears a crashing noise and then someone moaning. The commotion appeared to have come from behind a closed door marked "Staff Only." Nobody near Arlene seems concerned, so Arlene goes back to her studying. This example best illustrates:
the bystander effect
Victor is a fifth grader in Zender Elementary School. Like most students in his school, he believes that Zender Elementary School is the best school in town. This example best illustrates:
What does this photo show?
The man in the middle is being strapped to the "electric chair" as part of Milgram's obedience studies.
Which of the following is a basic principle involved in person perception?
All of these are involved in person perception
Zelda is researching the topic of prejudice for a term paper. If she does a thorough job, she is likely to conclude that:
racial and ethnic groups are far more alike than they are different.
This picture shows a volunteer for "Meals on Wheels," who delivers meals to about 65 elderly residents each week and also checks to make sure they are safe and healthy. Volunteers like this one give their time and energy freely to help others. What social psychology concept is illustrated here?
As a student majoring in psychology, Hannah is interested in how we form impressions of other people, how we interpret the meaning of other people's behavior, and how our behavior is affected by our attitudes. Hannah's interest most closely resembles an area of social psychology called:
The textbook defines ________ as a cluster of characteristics that are associated with all members of a specific social group, often including qualities that are unrelated to the objective criteria that define the group.
Table 11.3 shows 16 basic personality factors, each one representing a dimension that ranges between two extremes. The trait theorist(s) ________ believed that personality could be described in terms of these 16 source traits.
Although he stayed calm during the conversation, Mark was angry as he left Professor McArthur's office because he felt that he had been treated unfairly. A short while later, Mark snapped at a fellow student who asked if she could borrow his notes. Which ego defense mechanism best accounts for Mark's behavior toward the other student?
Which theory of personality is represented in this diagram?
Eysenck's theory of personality types
The drawing depicts Sigmund Freud's famous iceberg analogy for the structure of personality. Which letter labels the dimension that Freud called the id?
After turning out the light off the night, your head hits the pillow. Gradually, yours muscles relax and drowsiness occurs. This drowsy yet wakeful state is associated with ________ brain waves.
This image depicts the sleep cycles over the course of a typical night. In which stage does the brain become more active, and heart rate, blood pressure, and respirations shift up and down, sometimes to an extreme?
Which of the following scientists acknowledged the existence of "internal factors" but believed that internal thoughts, beliefs, emotions, or motives should not be included in an objective scientific explanation of behavior?
B. F. Skinner
Researchers discovered that the neuronal activity in the brain of a monkey who simply watched another monkey pick up and eat a peanut was the same as the brain activity of the monkey actually performing these actions. These researchers are investigating:
Mirror neurons and the mirror neuron system
After carrying a step stool to the kitchen, five-year-old Kayla is able to reach the Scotch tape dispenser on the kitchen counter. What is the operant in this example?
Carrying the step stool to the kitchen
The characteristic of motivation known as activation refers to the:
initiation or production of behavior
Cross-cultural researchers have found that different cultures classify emotions:
in very similar ways
When Yuet-Ping went for career counseling she was give the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). Her score on this test is most likely to reveal her level of:
In the famous Müller-Lyer illusion, it appears as though:
one line is longer than the other even though the lines are actually identical in length
John puts one toe into he swimming pool and shivers because the water is so cold. He grits his teeth and dives in anyway. After about ten minutes, the temperature of the water seems quite comfortable to him. This example illustrates the principle of:
Your exercise teacher instructs you to do five deep knee bends. Your ability to do knee bends without toppling over involves your ___________.
This photo shows two friends, one from Cuba, and one from China, taking an English class. The concept, discussed in the Culture and Human behavior box, "The Stress of Adapting to a New Culture," and specifically depicted here, is:
When stress is prolonged, the hypothalamus signals the:
pituitary gland to release ACTH.
When Marcy arrived home she was shocked to see that her home had been burglarized and ransacked, and she was terrified that the burglar might still be in the house. It is very probable that Marcy's sympathetic nervous system has stimulated her adrenal medulla to secrete hormones called:
People who must cope with crime, poverty, substandard housing, and unemployment in their everyday environment often experience:
Cross-cultural studies have shown that a sense of control:
is more highly valued in individualistic, Western cultures than in collectivistic, Eastern cultures
Figure 13.4 shows the two endocrine pathways involved in the stress response. It was ________ who identified pathway one (acute stress) and ________ who identified pathway two (prolonged stress).
Walter Cannon; Hans Selye
According to psychologist Martin Seligman, people who have ________ use external, unstable, and specific explanations for negative events.
an optimistic explanatory style
When Arnell and his friends go to the local mall they are sometimes perceived as dangerous because of their race. If they are similar to three-quarters of other African American adolescents who reported being treated as incompetent or dangerous, or both, because of their race, they may be experiencing a subtle form of racism called:
When sales were down for the third moth in a row, the sales manager called a meeting of all the sales staff in order to analyze the situation and attempt to come up with solutions. This examples illustrates:
An enzyme called ________ has the capacity to add DNA to shortened telemeters, rebuilding and extending the length of telomeres.
can have cognitive, behavioral, and emotional components
When people experience an unpleasant state of psychological tension resulting form two inconsistent thoughts or perceptions, they are said to be experiencing:
In Milgram's original obedience study, if the "teacher" protested that he wished to stop or that he was worried about the "learner's" safety, what did the experimenter do?
The experimenter said, "The experiment requires that you continue."
Peggy worked very hard as an unpaid volunteer at an animal shelter because she hoped to get hired as a full-time staff member after she finished school. Peggy's helping behavior best illustrates:
The chapter Prologue describes how Fern labeled the man sitting on the steps with a cup in his hand as "homeless" on the basis of very limited information, which led her to make an embarrassing mistake. This is one disadvantage of using:
Dr. Kildare gave his patient a lengthy test that involved more than 500 questions. The patient was instructed to respond to each statement with either "True," "False," or "Cannot say." Dr. Kildare told his patient that the test would be scored by computer, but that he would analyze the results and discuss them with her. Most likely, Dr. Kildare's patient has taken which personality test?
the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
The drawing depicts Sigmund Freud's famous iceberg analogy for the structure of personality. Which letter labels the personality structure that is present at birth and ruled by the pleasure principle?
The drawing depicts Sigmund Freud's famous iceberg analogy for the structure of personality. Which letter labels the dimension that Freud called the superego?
Kelley and Madison are identical twins who were separated at birth and raised in different families. In a twin study, similarities in their personality traits would be judged to be due to ________, and differences in their personality traits would be considered to be due to ________.
genetic influences; environmental influences
The drawing depicts Sigmund Freud's famous iceberg analogy for the structure of personality. Which letter labels the personality structure that derives its energy from two conflicting instincts, Eros and Thanatos?
Which of the following is the BEST definition of heuristic?
the problem-solving strategy that involves following a general rule of thumb to reduce the number of possible solutions
Desmond and Deirdre are two biological siblings who are being reared in the same home. Their IQ scores are much more similar than those of Glen and Giselle, who are biological siblings who were separated as infants and are being brought up in different homes. The fact that the IQ scores of Desmond and Deirdre are much more similar than the IQ scores of Glen and Giselle provides evidence for the influence of __________ on intelligence and IQ scores.
Psychologist Claude Steele coined the term _____________ to refer to the belief that you might be evaluated in terms of a negative stereotype about a group to which you belong, especially when that belief creates anxiety or self-doubt.
"Okay, your recital is next Saturday night," Candy reminded her piano student. "You're doing great, but or the next couple of days I want you to practice by starting with the middle third of your piece until you've got it down perfectly." As a piano teacher, Candy is trying to help her student counteract which of the following memory tendencies?
the serial position effect
Rebecca is 17 years old, weighs 86 pounds, has a BMI of 13.5, and has been hospitalized with a diagnosis of severe anorexia nervosa. Which of the following symptoms is Rebecca likely to experience?
Her menstrual cycle will stop
Which of the following disorders is characterized by severely impaired social and communication skills, including delayed or a complete lack of language development?
Every day when Wayne's parents come to visit him on the psychiatric ward, Wayne is often still dressed in his pajamas and sitting in a corner of the commons area. Although he answers their questions, he seems apathetic to their presence and anything else occurring on the ward. As a symptom of his schizophrenia, Wayne's complete lack of gold-directed behavior is termed:
Even though Paula's friends have told her that her concerns are exaggerated, Paula continues to be extremely preoccupied with every "defect" in her physical appearance. Which of the following psychological disorders is Paula MOST likely to have?
body dysmorphic disorder
Borderline personality disorder is characterized by
erratic, unstable relationships, emotions, and self-image, and desperate efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment.
Lana is about the right weight for her age and height. Nevertheless, she is so preoccupied by her fear of becoming overweight that when ever she goes on and eating binge, she purges the excessive food by self-induced vomiting. It is likely that Lana suffers from:
Danny, who has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, falsely believes that outside forces in the form of aliens from another universe have power over him and actively influence and manipulate his actions and thoughts. These types of delusions are called:
delusions of being controlled
As a general rule, if a person's ability to function after the death of a loved one is still seriously impaired after _________ , major depression is suspected
Jack was found sleeping on a park bench. When awakened by a police officer, he could not remember who he was or where he lived. Later, investigators discovered that Jack's wife had left him the night before after a violent fight in which he tried to attack her. Jack insists that he has no memories of the dispute with his wife or even of having been married. Jack is probably suffering from
The most controversial dissociative disorder involves extensive memory disruptions along with the presence of two or more distinct identities. This is the order is called:
dissociative identity disorder
Nikki, an air traffic controller, experiences prolonged and chronic stress. According to Hans Selye's model of stress, Nikki's response to this intense and persistent stress probably involves high levels of:
Although it is obvious to most of Bernie's friends and family that he drinks too much, his wife, Betsy, refuses to admit that he has a drinking problem. She insists that he is a moderate drinker who has the occasional glass of red wine for medicinal purposes. In this situation, it is possible that Betsy is using an emotion-focused coping strategy called:
Depicted here are two friends discussing the personal problems that one of them is experiencing. In this interaction one person is showing expressions of concern, empathy, and positive regard, a type of social support called:
Whenever Caleb gets stressed out or upset, he tends to drink excessively in order to "drown his sorrows." Caleb is using a form of an emotion-focused coping strategy called:
________ is primarily aimed at directly changing or managing a threatening or harmful stressor.
Resilience refers to
the ability to cope with stress and adversity, to adapt to negative or unforeseen events, and to rebound after negative experiences
Which one of the following people is most likely to be classified as exhibiting a Type A behavior pattern?
Bill, a very ambitious, competitive, hostile, time-conscious real estate developer
Dr. Strayer investigates the mental processes we use to make sense of our social environment and form judgments about the characteristics and motives of other people. Dr. Strayer is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.
In psychology, the term personality refers to:
an individual's unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
A psychologist discovers that as negative life events increase, episodes of depression also increase. The psychologist concludes that there is a ____________________ negative life events and episodes of depression.
Which school of psychological thought seeks to shift from the traditional emphasis on disorders to a focus on optimization of human function?
Working with Mike's parents and his teachers at preschool, the behavior therapist first identified specific problem behaviors related to Mike's aggressiveness. Then, the behavior therapist observed Mike in both situations to determine how frequently these behaviors occurred in order to determine:
the baseline rate of the problem behaviors before beginning behavior therapy.
Pictured here is a poster advertising a drink containing a naturally occurring substance, lithium salt. Lithium is most commonly used to treat:
As part of her treatment for an eating disorder, Anne's psychologist designs a treatment program that involves monitoring Anne's thoughts about food and her weight and recording her eating behavior and weight-control techniques. In addition, her therapist develops a behavior modification program that is designed to reward appropriate eating behavior and discourage inappropriate behaviors. Which therapy is Anne's psychologist using?
cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
Cognitive therapy is based upon the assumption that psychological problems are essentially caused by:
irrational and illogical patterns of thinking
What condition is the procedure shown in the photo below primarily used to treat?
According to Carl Rogers, the client-centered therapist ideally should demonstrate
genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathic understanding
The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil, differ from first- and second-generation antidepressants in that they:
affect levels of only one neurotransmitter in the brain, serotonin
Pamela's psychologist is using systematic desensitization to help Pamela overcome intense anxiety about thunderstorms and threatening weather. As part of the process, Pamela creates an anxiety hierarchy that includes:
a list of specific scenes related to her fear of thunderstorms, arranged from least anxiety-provoking to most anxiety-provoking
A token economy is:
a form of behavior therapy in which the therapeutic environment is structured to reward desired behaviors with positive reinforcers
According to the information presented in your text, what does this drawing show?
a "tranquilizing chair" developed in the early 1800s to restrain and sedate mentally ill people
Which is NOT one of the three basic clusters of personality disorders?
the delusional, dissociative cluster
The term ________ refers to the scientific study of the origin, symptoms, and development of psychological disorders.
This picture shows an Iraq veteran. Hundreds of thousands of soldiers like him suffer from flashbacks, nightmares, nervousness, and other symptoms of what disorder?
post-traumatic stress disorder
The most consistent brain abnormality that researchers have found in people with schizophrenia is enlargement of the:
Wilma lives in the Northwest part of the country. Every autumn and winter, as daylight hours get shorter and the weather gets wet and cloudy, she experiences more intense symptoms of major depression. Wilma most likely suffers from:
seasonal affective disorder.
Norman displays many schizophrenic symptoms, both positive and negative, including random auditory hallucinations that don't follow any particular theme, peculiar thoughts and behavior, frequent inappropriate laughing mixed with aggressive shouting, and echoing words spoken by others. Norman would probably be diagnosed as suffering from the __________ type of schizophrenia
Jeremy is an ambulance driver and a paramedic. He and some of his co-workers sometimes appear to do their jobs in a detached, depersonalized, but nevertheless, efficient manner. Jeremy and his co-workers are using ________ to help them deal with distressing situations.
When Carl got into the parking lot, he was distressed to find that his new car had been badly damaged by a hit-and-run driver. At this point, Carl is probably in the ________ stage of the general adaption syndrome.
The branch of psychology that studies how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health, illness, medical treatment, and health-related behaviors is called:
This figure depicts ________, which includes bone marrow, the spleen, the thymus, and lymph nodes.
the immune system
The main component of the Type A behavior pattern that predicts the development of coronary heart disease is:
Before Mark had heard the details of how Allison's car accident had happened, he commented, "Allison is so absentminded, I'm sure it happened because she was probably talking on her cellphone and not paying attention." Mark's response illustrates an attributional pattern called:
blaming the victim
A process by which individuals are induced to state an opinion or attitude that runs counter to their own private belief or attitude is called a
You are asked to provide a talk about the composition and function of groups. Aligned with your text, what will be the topics you cover in your talk?
What is the task of the psychologist?
Reporting whatever thoughts come to mind even if they are trivial or embarrassing is a characteristic of _
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